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General shape of frequency response of amplifiers:
An audio frequency amplifier which operates over audio frequency range extending from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Audio frequency amplifiers are used in radio receivers, large public meeting and various announcements to be made for the passengers on railway platforms. Over the range of frequencies at which it is to be used an amplifier should ideally provide the same amplification for all frequencies. The degree to which this is done is usually indicated by the curve known as frequency response curve of the amplifier.
To plot this curve, input voltage to the amplifier is kept constant and frequency of input signal is continuously varied. The output voltage at each frequency of input signal is noted and the gain of the amplifier is calculated. For an audio frequency amplifier, the frequency range is quite large from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. In this frequency response, the gain of the amplifier remains constant in mid-frequency while the gain varies with frequency in low and high frequency regions of the curve. Only at low and high frequency ends, gain deviates from ideal characteristics. The decrease in voltage gain with frequency is called roll-off.
The range of frequencies can be specified over which the gain does not deviate more than 70.7% of the maximum gain at some reference mid-frequency.
From above figure, the frequencies f1 & f2 are called lower cut-off and upper cut-off frequencies.
Bandwidth of the amplifier is defined as the difference between f2 & f1.
Bandwidth of the amplifier = f2 - f1
The frequency f2 lies in high frequency region while frequency f1 lies in low frequency region. These two frequencies are also called as half-power frequencies since gain or output voltage drops to 70.7% of maximum value and this represents a power level of one half the power at the reference frequency in mid-frequency region.
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