Fisheries in India are a very important economic activity and a flourishing sector with varied resources and potentials. Fishing in India is a major industry in its coastal states, employing over 14 million people. It produces about 3 percent of World’s fish and occupies second place among the fish producing nations of the world after China. It also helps in augmenting food supply, generating employment, raising nutritional level and earning valuable foreign exchange. In India, fishing is categorised into two types: They are
1. Marine or Sea Fisheries
2. Inland or Fresh Water Fisheries
1. Marine or Sea Fisheries: It includes coastal, off- shore and deep sea fisheries mainly on the continental shelves. Kerala leads in the marine fish production in India.
2. Inland or Fresh Water Fisheries: Rivers, lakes, canals, reservoirs, ponds, tanks etc. are the sources of fresh water fresh water fisheries. About 50 percent of the country’s total fish production comes from the inland fisheries and Andhra Pradesh is the leading producer in India.
In India, the important varieties of fishes caught by the fisherman are Cat fish, Herrings, Mackerels, Perches, Eels, Mullets etc.