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Factors influencing growth and development
1. Heredity: Heredity decides size and shape of the body. Therefore, family members bear resemblance. The characteristics are transmitted through genes that are responsible for family illness, for example diabetes.
2. Race: Similar physical characteristics are seen in people belonging to the same race.
3. Sex: A male infant is larger and heavier than female.
4. Intrauterine development: maternal nutritional deficiencies, drugs, and infections during pregnancy can have effect on the growing fetus.
5. Illness and injury: Illness may reduce the weight and cause hindrance in the child's progress.
6. Nutrition: Quality and quantity of food consumed by the child have effect on his / her bodybuilding and resistance.
7. Environment: Better sunshine, clean surrounding, fresh air, and socioeconomic status can affect parenting, thus, children's
a. development. Emotionally sound, warm, and caring environment which' promotes parent-child positive interactions enhances the development.
8. Ordinal position in the Family: Children learn from older blinds, which may be lacked by the first child. However, the parents of the children born second or later, in the order, may have more confidence in parenting skills. The youngest is petted and may be slow in certain areas of development.
9. Emotions: Lade of parent-child attachment, lack of love and security m children can distort the personality! The disturbed children neither sleep nor eat well as one who is happy.
10. Intelligence: Intelligence influences children motor development, psycho social development, and leanurig development.
11. Exercise: Exercise stimulates physical activity arid muscular
12. Hormones: Endocrine glands play an important role in growth and development. Deficiency of thyroid causes mental retardation. Overproduction of growth hormones leads to gigaritism while deficiency of growth hormone causes dwarfism.
13. Structures of the systems of the body: A rate of growth of the neural system is rapid before school age. It is most rapid during the months of life. Growth of the lymphoid tissue is rapid up to 11 years and gradually declines. The growth of genitals is slow until puberty that increases rapidly during adolescence.
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