Education and Development under
The establishment of a Madrasa by a learned maulvi with the support of Warren Hastings was
the beginning of initiatives of British government to promote education. This
Madrasa started with forty stipendiary students. What Warren Hastings had done
for the Muslims, his successor was prepared to do for the Hindus. Cornwallis
established a Sanskrit college (1791) in Benares. The successive governors in
the next twenty years, however, did nothing to follow it up.
The Company held the view that it was not desirable
in its own interests to encourage education in India. In 1813, when the Company
Charter was renewed, it contained a clause intended to force on the Company the
initiative for a regular educational policy. Hastings encouraged the foundation
of vernacular schools by missionaries. He was the patron of the Hindu College,
established at Calcutta in 1817, supported by the Indian public for the
teaching of English and of Western science. The cause of education was further
promoted by missionaries like Alexander Duff. Thanks to Hastings’ liberal
outlook, press censorship instituted in 1799 was abolished. It was in such an
atmosphere that the Bengali Weekly, the Samachar
Darpan was started in 1818.
The Charter of 1833 emphasized the development of
the country primarily in the interest of its inhabitants. William Bentinck,
appointed the first Governor General of united India reformed the society by
suppressing thuggee (robbery and murder committed by the thugs in accordance
with their ritual), abolishing sati and introducing English as the medium of
instruction in schools and colleges. This he thought would facilitate
Indianization of the services. Bentinck founded the Calcutta Medical College in
March 1835. The students of this college were sent to London in 1844 to
complete their studies. Ten years after the establishment of the Calcutta
Medical College, the Grant Medical College in Bombay was founded in 1845. In
1847 the Thomason Engineering College at Roorkee (now IIT Roorkee) came into
existence. In 1849 a school for girls was founded in Calcutta.
Macaulay came to India as a law member in 1835. He
was appointed President of the Board of Education. He had a poor opinion of
indigenous learning. Macaulay recommended and government accepted to make
English the literary and official language of India.
A charter is a grant by a country’s
sovereign power to start a company, university, or city with rights and
privileges clearly stated. The East India Company was started with Queen
Elizabeth’s Charter of 1600. It came to be renewed every twenty years, after
Warren Hastings took over as Governor General since 1773. The Charter of 1853
was the last one before the Company government was taken over by the Crown.
Dalhousie showed keen interest in education. He approved of the system of vernacular education designed by James Thomason, Lieutenant Governor of the North-Western Provinces (1843-53). The Educational Dispatch of Charles Wood (1854) outlined a comprehensive scheme of education-primary, secondary, collegiate. Departments of Public Instruction and a university for each of the three Presidencies were organized for the purpose. University of Madras was established under this plan (1857), along with universities in Bombay and Calcutta.
modified the policy of Macaulay by encouraging educational institutions in
vernaculars too. He also agreed to the principle of grants-in-aid to private
effort, irrespective of caste or creed.
Macaulay found nothing good in Indian
literature, philosophy and medicine. Macaulay, in his minute of 1835 wrote: ‘I
have no knowledge of either Sanskrit or Arabic. But I have read translations of
the most celebrated Arabic and Sanskrit works. I have conversed both here and
at home with men distinguished by their proficiency in the Eastern tongues. I
have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good
European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia.
... The question now before us is
simply whether, when it is in our power to teach this language, we shall teach
languages in which, by universal confession, there are no books on any subject
which deserve to be compared to our own, whether, when we can teach European
science, we shall teach systems which, by universal confession, wherever they
differ from those of Europe differ for the worse, and whether, when we can
patronize sound philosophy and true history, we shall countenance, at the
public expense, medical doctrines which would disgrace an English farrier,
astronomy which would move laughter in girls at an English boarding school,
history abounding with kings thirty feet high and reigns thirty thousand years
long, and geography made of seas of treacle and seas of butter.
... It is said that the Sanscrit and
the Arabic are the languages in which the sacred books of a hundred millions of
people are written, and that they are on that account entitled to peculiar
encouragement. Assuredly it is the duty of the British Government in India to
be not only tolerant but neutral on all religious questions. ... We abstain,
and I trust shall always abstain, from giving any public encouragement to those
who are engaged in the work of converting the natives to Christianity. And
while we act thus, can we reasonably or decently bribe men, out of the revenues
of the State, to waste their youth in learning how they are to purify
themselves after touching an ass or what texts of the Vedas they are to repeat
to expiate the crime of killing a goat?
... We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern, -a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population.