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DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS
ü Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a capability provided by some computer bus architectures that allows data to be sent directly from an attached device (such as a disk drive) to the memory on the computer's motherboard. The microprocessor is freed from involvement with the data transfer, thus speeding up overall computer operation.
ü Without DMA, when the CPU is using programmed input/output, it is typically fully occupied for the entire duration of the read or write operation, and is thus unavailable to perform other work. With DMA, the CPU initiates the transfer, does other operations while the transfer is in progress, and receives an interrupt from the DMA controller when the operation is done.
This feature is useful any time the CPU cannot keep up with the rate of data transfer, or where the CPU needs to perform useful work while waiting for a relatively slow I/O data
transfer. Many hardware systems use DMA, including disk drive controllers, graphics cards, network cards and sound cards.
ü DMA is also used for intra-chip data transfer in multi-core processors. Computers that have DMA channels can transfer data to and from devices with much less CPU overhead than computers without DMA channels. Similarly, a processing element inside a multi- core processor can transfer data to and from its local memory without occupying its processor time, allowing computation and data transfer to proceed in parallel.
1. Modes of operation
ü An entire block of data is transferred in one contiguous sequence. Once the DMA controller is granted access to the system bus by the CPU, it transfers all bytes of data in the data block before releasing control of the system buses back to the CPU, but renders the CPU inactive for relatively long periods of time. The mode is also called "Block Transfer Mode". It is also used to stop unnecessary data.
1.2 Cycle stealing mode
ü The cycle stealing mode is used in systems in which the CPU should not be disabled for the length of time needed for burst transfer modes.
ü In the cycle stealing mode, the DMA controller obtains access to the system bus the same way as in burst mode, using BR (Bus Request) and BG (Bus Grant) signals, which are the two signals controlling the interface between the CPU and the DMA controller.
ü However, in cycle stealing mode, after one byte of data transfer, the control of the system bus is deasserted to the CPU via BG.
1.3 Transparent mode
ü The transparent mode takes the most time to transfer a block of data, yet it is also the most efficient mode in terms of overall system performance. The DMA controller only transfers data when the CPU is performing operations that do not use the system buses.
ü It is the primary advantage of the transparent mode that the CPU never stops executing its programs and the DMA transfer is free in terms of time. The disadvantage of the transparent mode is that the hardware needs to determine when the CPU is not using the system buses, which can be complex.
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