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Chapter: Business Science : Managerial Behavior and Effectiveness : Designing The Managerial Job

Designing the Managerial Job

1 Identifying Managerial Talent 2 Selection 3 Recruitment 4 Managerial Skills Development 5 Pay and Rewards 6 Managerial Motivation 7 Effective Management Criteria 8 Performance Appraisal Measures 9 Balanced Scorecard 10 Feedback 11 Career Management



1 Identifying Managerial Talent

2 Selection

3 Recruitment

4 Managerial Skills Development

5 Pay and Rewards

6 Managerial Motivation

7 Effective Management Criteria

8 Performance Appraisal Measures

9 Balanced Scorecard

10 Feedback

11 Career Management


1 Identifying Managerial Talent


      Managing Talent is increasingly challenging in the mists of globalization and a recovering economy


      Companies willing to invest in talent development record a higher business performance than those who don‘t.


      Critical Ingredients of Managerial Talent


      Unique vision thinking


      Rely on strengthens, compensate for weakness: met cognitive ability


      Trust your intuition :extra cognitive capabilities


      Be wise


      Optimism is desirable


People Talent’s in four Areas




      Implementing business model which distinguishes its value proposition




      Represents the org public face and are responsible for customer experience


      Craft master


      Ensures the quality, timeliness and cost effectiveness of an org




      Keep business running, assembly line operators, back office agents, administrative assistants


How talented Managers Lead Projects


      Find the right people : how & where


      Match people with the right tasks


      Provide constant feedback


      Concentrate on execution



      Do more with : creativity in action


How talented Managers run organizations


      Build good team of senior managers( Andry Grove – Intel)


      Delegate them power


      Execute on promises ( Richard Branson – Virgin group)


      Delivery ( Michael Dell – Dell Computer corp.)


Do not use all opportunities (― ― )


      Avoid micro management( Larry Ellison- Oracle corp.)


      Establish multiple mechanisms for search of managerial talent( Akio Mortia – Sony)


Assessing Leadership and Management Talent


      Selection Strategy – Four Steps


      Understand the position being staffed


      Specify the qualifications required for the position


      Use appropriate methods to measure the qualifications


      Collect and integrate the information's to identify the best qualified candidate


Review- Ernst & Young


      Through interviews with 480 top executives and 4000 surveys across all functions and levels in organisations in Singapore, Greater China, Hong Kong, and India


      Examined the managerial talent identification and development policies, procedures and processes of a broad spectrum of Multinational companies and Small and Medium Enterprises in five industries


      Finance, high-technology manufacturing, IT and telecommunications, hospitality and supply chain


Dimensions to develop talent and high potentials organisations


Critical talent dimensions that help attract, develop and retain managerial talent and high potentials in organisations


1. Creating the business case for talent




The most important talent domain in driving talent management is building a business case for talent. This implies that building a sound business case is a good area to target to improve business performance.


A business case for talent comprises:


      Linking talent to the ability to implement business strategy


      Linking talent to the ability to create shareholder value


      Linking talent efforts to the ability to differentiate an organisation from its competitors


      Continuing to invest in talent during a downturn


The high correlation between positive business performance and managing talent implies that the organisation‘s ability to manage talent has a strong impact on the organisation‘s performance.


2.     Ensuring high-performing teams


3.     Aligning talent with strategy and customers


4.     Assessing talent


5.     Investing in talent


6.     Fully leveraging and managing diversity


7.     Matching talent to positions


8.     Engaging talent for full contribution


9.     Using technology to get greater return on talent


10.                        Measuring talent


11.                        Creating a shared partnership between HR and line managers




2 Selection


— ―Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.‖


— It is selecting a right person for a right job at right time.




— Preliminary Interview


The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms. The basic objective is to reject misfits. On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise.


— Selection Tests


Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests. There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. These tests can be Aptitude Tests, Personality Tests, and Ability Tests and are conducted to judge how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. Besides this there are some other tests also like Interest Tests (activity preferences), Graphology Test (Handwriting), Medical Tests, Psychometric Tests etc.


— Employment Interview


The next step in selection is employment interview. Here interview is a formal and in-depth conversation between applicant‘s acceptability. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. Interviews can be One-to-One, Panel Interview, or Sequential Interviews. Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews, Behavioral Interviews, Stress Interviews.


— Reference & Background Checks


Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates. Reference checks can be through formal letters, telephone conversations. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it.


— Selection Decision


After obtaining all the information, the most critical step is the selection decision is to be made. The final decision has to be made out of applicants who have passed preliminary interviews, tests, final interviews and reference checks. The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee.


— Physical Examination


After the selection decision is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination.



— Job Offer


The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. It is made by way of letter of appointment.


— Final Selection


3 Recruitment


The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization.


Recruitment Sources and Methods

n    Recruitment sources: Place where qualified individuals are found


n    Recruitment methods: Means by which potential employees can be attracted to the firm


Methods Used in Internal Recruiting

n    Job Posting


n    Employee Referrals


n    Internal Job Fairs External Recruitment Sources


Why external recruitment?

n    Acquire skills not possessed by current employees


n    Obtain employees with different backgrounds to provide a diversity of ideas


n    External Recruitment Sources

v   Internet


v   Community Colleges


v   Colleges and Universities


v   Competitors and Other Firms


v   Outplacement Firms


v   Military Personnel


v   Consultants or Researcher


v   Professional Associations


External Recruitment Methods

n    Advertising


n    Employment Agencies


n    Job Fairs/Virtual Job Fairs


n    Executive Search Firms


n    Target Research


n    Internships


n    Professional Associations


n    Open Houses


n    Event Recruiting


n    Sign-on Bonuses


n    Company Database


n    Target Internet sites



4 Managerial Skills Development


•   Overall development in a person


Not only improvement in job performance, but also improvement in knowledge, personality, behavior of executive


•   Focus more on personal growth


•   Executive development improves job performance as well as job behavior


Understands cause & effect relationships, synthesize from experience, visualizes relationship & thinks logically




      Executive/ Managerial development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage.


      It is concerned with improving the performance of the manager by giving them opportunities to grow.


Objectives of Executive Development Programs


      To over haul the management skills



      To improve the performance of the managers


      To identify the person with the required potential and prepare them for senior positions.


       To increase morale of the members of the management group.


      To increase versatility of the management group.


      To keep the executives abreast with the changes and developments in their respective fields.


Executive Development Process


      Identifying Development Needs- how many & what type of executives-org, individual needs


      Appraisal of Present Managerial Talent – assessment is made to compare with the standard expected from him


      Inventory of Executive man power


–  Age, education, experience, qualification


–  Strengthens, weakness in certain functions related to org needs


      Developing development programmes


–  Skill development, changing attitudes & knowledge acquisition


      Conducting Development Programmes- participating


      Evaluating development Programmes


–  Appraise the effectiveness, highlight weakness




      on the job development


      Under this method, the manager is placed on a regular job and the necessary skill is taught to perform the job efficiently. On the job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working condition


      Executive Development Methods




Job rotation


Multiple Management




Case Studies

Group Discussion

Role Playing

Management games

In Basket Exercise

Sensitivity Training



5 Pay and Rewards


Work performance is affected by:


Job characteristics and (physical) work environment




Abilities and skills




The willingness to perform



Rewarding Employees

n    Major strategic rewards decisions:


n    What to pay employees


n    How to pay individual employees


n    What benefits to offer


n    How to construct employee recognition programs


n    What to pay


n    Need to establish a pay structure


n    Balance between:


n    Internal equity – the value of the job for the organization


n    External equity – the external competitiveness of an organization‘s pay relative to a pay elsewhere in its industry


n    A strategic decision with trade-offs


Definition of Reward Management


      This management discipline is concerned with the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies, the purposes of which are to reward employees fairly, equitably and consistently in accordance with their value to the organisation.


      It deals with design, implementation and maintenance of reward systems (processes, practices, procedures) that aim to meet the needs of both the organisation and its stakeholders.


Philosophy of Reward Management

n    Strategic sense: long-term focus & it must be derived from the business strategy


n    Total Reward approach: considering all approaches of reward (financial or not) as a coherent whole; integration with other HRM strategies


n    Differential reward according to the contribution


n    Fairness, equity, consistency, transparency


Economic theories (partially) explaining pay levels

n    Supply & Demand: labor market factors


n    Efficiency wage theory: attraction of better employees, motivation, reducing fluctuation leads to high wages


n    Human Capital theory: productivity differences


n    Principal – Agent Theory: inequality in the information leads to „agency costs‖


n    The effort bargain: collective bargaining


The 4Ps of Reward

n    Pay


n    Salary, bonus, shares, etc.


n    Praise


n    Positive feedback, commendation, staff-of-the-year award, etc.


n    Promotion


n    Status, career elevation, secondment, etc.


n    Punishment


n    Disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticism, etc


Strategic Reward Management

n    Where do we want our reward practices to be in a few years time? (vision)


n    How do we intend to get there?  (means)


Reward Strategy



n    A declaration of intent that defines what the organisation wants to do in the longer term to develop and implement reward policies, practices and processes that will further the achievement of its business goals and meet the needs of the stakeholders.

n    It gives a framework to other elements of reward management.


The structure & content of a Reward strategy

n    Environment analysis:


n    Macro-level: social, economical, demographic


n    Industrial level


n    Micro-level: competitors


n    Analysis of the „inner environment‖: strategy, job evaluation, financial conditions…


n    Gap-analysis


n    Guiding principles


n    Broad-brush reward strategy


n    Specific reward initiatives




A systematic process

n    For defining the relative worth/ size of jobs/roles within an organisation


n    For establishing internal relativities


n    For designing an equitable grade structure and grading jobs in the structure


n    To give an input for reward considerations


Dimensions of job evaluation

n    Relative or measured to an absolute scale


n    Relative: compares jobs to one another within the company


n    Absolute: compares to an „independent‖, external measure


n    Analytical or non-analytical (global)


n    Analytical: measures factors or elements of the jobs


n    Non-analytical: measures the job as a whole


Wage gaps


n    Wage gaps can occur in companies using international benchmarking in job evaluation. The cause is simple:


n    The market of top managers is usually international: they earn international wages, or they leave the firm


n    The market of workers with little or no qualification is local in (nearly) every case: they earn local wages.


n    In less developed countries this can lead to enermous wage gaps between the „top‖ and „bottom‖ employees.




Components of Total Remuneration


n    Base pay: Base pay is the fixed compensation paid to an employee for performing specific job responsibilities. It is typically paid as a salary, hourly (or in some situations piece rate). There is a tendency towards market orientation and the increasing role of qualifications.

n    Contingent pay: Individual contingent pay relates financial rewards to the


n    individual performance, organisation or team performance,


n    competence,


n    service,


n    contribution or


n    skill of individual employees.


Consolidated pay: built into the base pay


Variable pay: provided in the form of cash bonuses (increasing role nowadays).


n    Employee benefits: Elements of remuneration given in addition to the various forms of cash pay.


Contingent pay

n    Individual contingent pay is a good motivator (but to what extent?) for those who receive it.


n    It attracts and retains better workers.


n    It makes labour related expenditures more flexible.


n    It can demotivate those who don‘t receive it (depends on performance measurement)


n    Can act against quality and teamwork.


Types of individual contingency pays

n    Performance-related: increases basic pay or bonuses related to assessment of performance


n    Competence related: Pay increases related to the level of competence


n    Contribution-related: pay is related both to inputs and outputs


n    Skill-based: pay is related to acquisition of skills


n    Service-related: pay is related to service-time


Team based pay

n    Pay is related to team performance


n    It can encourages teamwork, loyalty and co-operation


n    It can be demotivating on individual level (encourages social loafing) Organisaton-wide schemes


n    Profit-Sharing Plans – organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on an established formula designed around profitability


n    Gain Sharing – compensation based on sharing of gains from improved productivity


n    Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) – plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices


Employee benefits

n    Attractive and competitive total remuneration


n    Provide for the personal needs


n    Increase commitment toward the organisation


n    Tax-efficient


Main types of Employee benefits

n    Pension schemes


n    Personal (and family) security: different types of insurances


n    Financial assistance: loans, house purchase schemes, discount on company services…


n    Personal needs: holidays, child care, recreation facilities, career breaks…


n    Company cars and petrol


n    Intangible benfits: quality of working life…


n    Other benefits: mobile phones, notebooks…


n    Cafeteria systems



6 Managerial Motivation


What is Motivation?


ž   Motivation refers to the process by which a person‘s efforts are energized directed and sustained towards attaining a goal.


ž   Three key elements I. Energy


II. Direction


III. Persistence




The energy element is a measure of intensity or drive. A motivated person puts forth effort and works hard however the quality of effort must also be considered.




High levels of effort do not necessarily need to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.




Effort that is directed toward and consistent with organization goals is the kind of effort we want from employees.


Finally motivation includes a persistence dimension. We want employees to persist in putting forth effort to achieve those goals.




ž   Maslow‘s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory


ž   McGregor‘s Theory X and Theory Y


ž   Herzberg‘s Two-Fact Theory


ž   McClelland‘s Three-Needs Theory Maslow‘s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory


ž   Maslow Argues that each levels in needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant.



ž   An individual moves up the needs hierarchy from one level to the next.


ž   He considered psychological and safety needs(lower order needs)


ž   He considered social, esteem, self actualization needs (higher order needs)


ž   Lower order needs are predominantly satisfied externally


ž   Higher order needs are satisfied internally


McGregor‘s Theory X and Theory Y


ž   Douglas McGregor is best known about two assumption of human nature. Theory X and Theory Y


ž   Theory X is a negative view of people


ž   Theory Y is a positive view of people


Theory Y assumption should guide management practice and proposed that participation and decision making responsible and challenging jobs and good group relations would maximize employee motivation.


Herzberg‘s Two-Fact Theory


ž   Also Called motivation hygiene theory


ž   Have two factors



(i)Intrinsic factors: job satisfaction

(ii)Extrinsic factors: job dissatisfaction


McClelland‘s Three-Needs Theory


ž   David McClelland and his associates proposed the three needs theory which says there are three acquired(not innate{not in born}) needs that are major motivators in work


ž   Three needs are:


i.         Need for achievement


ii.         Need for power


iii.         Need for Affiliation


7 Effective Management Criteria


Effective managers lead to business success


1. Know what is going on.


Be aware of what is happening in your sector, your organisation andyour team. Knowledge gives you the tools to plan ahead, use your resources effectively andmake informed decisions.

2. Create a sense of direction.


Establish clear goals and objectives for your employees – andexplain how these fit into an overall plan. Be ready to alter goals as circumstances change, butalways explain why. Make sure tasks, projects and meetings have a purpose and an outcome: ashared sense of direction is the core of a tightly knit, focused team.


3. Make decisions.


Your staff look to you for leadership, and that means making decisions.Indecisiveness will wear away at your credibility and create uncertainty in your team. By allmeans consult with your staff before making a decision, but take responsibility for making ityourself.


4. Lead by example.


Whether you like it or not, you set the tone for your team and they willfollow your example. If you are slack, they will be slack; if you are sharp, they will be, too. It isup to you to set the standards you want your team to aspire to, and communicate those standardsin what you do, what you say and how you say it.


5. Consult and delegate.


You cannot do everything by yourself, so don‘t even try. Talk to your staff about the business, listen to what they say and take their ideas on board. Pass work on to people who can do it and trust them to get the job done.


6. Take responsibility for your team.


Ultimately, you are responsible for your team‘s performance. If they perform poorly, that‘s a reflection on you. So be accountable for their performance and don‘t pass the buck – blame only creates resentment and division. Acceptingresponsibility will earn your employees‘ loyalty and respect.


7. Ask your staff what they want to achieve.


Successful organisations harness the interests andambitions of their staff, who will work with greater enthusiasm and commitment when they havea personal stake in a business or project. Find out what they want to achieve and give them themeans to achieve it.


8. Praise your staff for work well done.


Never pass up an opportunity to commend your staff for working well and always acknowledge their contribution to successful projects. A pat on the back costs nothing, but instils a sense of pride and increases motivation. You might evenconsider developing some sort of incentive or reward scheme.


9. Be completely fair.


Favouritism, however subtle, creates jealousy and damages morale. It‘svital that you don‘t show preference for one person over another, and you give your attentionequally to your staff. This doesn‘t mean you treat them all in exactly the same way, however:good managers realise that people respond to different incentives.


10. Deal with errors calmly.


If you lose your temper, you lose credibility. Deal with mistakescalmly and without rancour. If you have cause to criticise someone, never do so publicly – it isdamaging to individual pride and collective morale.


There are also following facts that should be kept in mind for effectivemanagement:


1. Low competence, high commitment


This bucket tends to contain inexperienced or new teammembers. They often lack the training and experience to be highly competent, but they make upfor it in enthusiasm and commitment to the job at hand.


2. Low to moderate competence, low commitment


This bucket contains poor performers aswell as good performers who are temporarily frustrated. Frustration is usually caused bysomeone who wants to do a good job but doesn‘t yet have the expertise to perform to their expectations.


8 Performance Appraisal Measures


—    By means of HRD activities, the manager develops the technical, managerial, behavioral knowledge, skill ability and values, which are necessary to perform present and future role.


—    The process of performance appraisals helps the manager and management to know the actual performance level of manager when compared to standard level.


—    Performance appraisal is the basis of HRD, based on which promotions ,demotion, salary fixing etc. can be decided. It is the basis for the individual development




—    It is a method of evaluating the behaviour of the manager in work spot, both qualitative and quantitative aspect.


—    It is the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an individual job.


—    The performance of an employee is his resultant behavior on task which can be observed & evaluated


—    Performance is measured in degree of the result achieved.


Performance Appraisal :


Performance Appraisal (PA) refers to all those procedures that are used to evaluate the personality, performance, potential, of its group members


Purpose of PA-Remedial, maintenance, development


Characteristic feature of performance appraisal


—    Performance appraisal is the systematic description of the manager job relevant strength and weakness.


—    Basic purpose is to find out how well the manager is performing the job.


—    Appraisals are arranged periodically.


—    Performance appraisal is a continuous process.


—    Secure information for making correct decisions on employees


—    Performance appraisal is followed by corrective measures



ü   Provides information about the performance rank.


ü   Provide feedback information about the level of achievements and behaviours of subordinate.


ü    Prevent  grievances and maintains discipline


ü   Creates and maintain satisfactory level of performance.


ü   Contributes to manager growth and development through training programs.


ü   Helps the superior to have proper understanding about their subordinates.


ü   Helps to adopt job changes with the help of continuous ranking.


ü   Facilitates fair and equitable compensation, based on performance.


ü   Facilitates in testing and validating selection tests, interview techniques, by comparing their scores with performance standards.


ü   Provides information for making decisions regarding layoff, retrenchment etc.


— The Appraisal Model


The appraisal model consists of three kinds of appraisals:


—    Comprehensive review


—    Progress or periodic review


—    Continuous monitoring Formal Comprehensive Review


—    It is conducted at least once a year.


—    Performance is reviewed for the period.


Progress or Periodic review


—     Identifies the problems or barrier that hinder effective performance at regular intervals.


—    Open communication between superior and subordinate


—    Priorities can be rearranged and objectives can be reorganized


Continuous monitoring


—    If the system deviates from the plan , one does not have to wait for the next periodic review to correct it. The superior and the subordinate discuss the situation such that corrective action can be taken immediately in order to prevent further deviation.


Process of PA


Performance appraisal methods


—    With the evolution and development of the appraisal system a number of methods or techniques of performance appraisal have been developed. They can be classified as


—    Traditional method


—    Graphic rating scales


—    Ranking method


—    Paired Comparison Method


—    Forced Distribution Method


—    Check List Method


—    Critical Incident Method


—    Essay Appraisal Form



—    Modern method


—    BARS (Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales)


—    Assessment centres


—    Management By Objective


—    Psychological Appraisal


—    360-Degree Feedback


Problems of Performance Appraisal


—    Halo effect- one trait


—    The Error of Central tendency


—    Rating all in the middle – avoid both extremes of scale


—    The leniency and strictness – liberal rating


—    Personal prejudices - dislikes


—    Recent effect


—    Recent action


—    Negative rating


—    Less reliability and validity


How to minimize the problems


The problems of performance appraisal can be minimized through the following means:


—    By covering an open meeting with the appraisers and discussing the performance of the manager before an after performance review discussions.


—    By encouraging every one to comment on each other‘s achievements and area requiring improvement.


—    The appraiser should be objective and speak the truth.


—    By conducting counselling meeting with the managers to appraise them of their performance and consequences.


9 Balanced Scorecard


—    New Approach to strategic management was developed in the early 1990‘s


—    Dr.Robert Kaplan, David Norton ( HBS)



—    Recognizing the weakness and vagueness of previous management approaches


—    This approach provides a clear prescription as what companies should measure in order to balance the financial, customer , learning & growth and internal business process


—    The balance scorecard is a management system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action


—    It provides feedback around both internal business process and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance & results


—    Companies must make to create future value through investment in customers, suppliers, employees, process, technology, innovation


—    The balance scorecard suggests that we view organization from four perspectives and to develop metrics, collect data and analyze it relative to each of these perspectives


1. Learning & Growth Perspective


—    Includes employee training, corporate cultural attitudes related to both individual & corporate self improvement


—    In knowledge- worker org , People – the only repository of knowledge are the main resource in the current climate of rapid change in technology


—    Knowledge workers has be put in continuous learning process


—    They constitute the essential foundation for any success of organization


—    Learning is more than training


2. Business Process Perspective


—    Refers to internal business process


—    Allows the managers to know how well their business is running and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements


—    Designed by person who know the process intimately


Two kinds of business process


—    Mission oriented processes


—    Support processes - benchmark


3. Customer Perspective


—    Realized the importance of customer focus and customer satisfaction


—    Poor performance in this perspective indicates the future decline



—    Developing metrics for satisfaction – customers should be analyzed in terms of kinds of customer, kind of process which we are providing a product or service to those customer groups


4.Financial Perspective


—    Timely & accurate funding data will always be a priority


—    Enough handling and processing of financial data


—    With the implementation of a corporate database, more process can be centralized and automated


—    Risk assessment and cost- benefit data also should be added


10 Feedback


—    Feedback is a planned, systematic intervention in the life of an individual -who is capable of choosing the goal and the direction of his own development.


—    Thus the purpose of counselling is to help the employee become aware of his own performance, his strengths and weaknesses, opportunities available for performance development and the threats in the form of technological change etc.


360-Degree Feedback


—    360-degree appraisal is basically a Multi-rater appraisal and feedback system. In this system, the employee is assessed periodically (once in a year and sometimes even half yearly) by a number of assessors including his


—    Supervisor


—    immediate subordinates


—    Colleagues


—     internal customers and


—    external customers


Importance of 360-degree feedback


—    A 360-degree evaluation is valuable because people don‘t act the same towards everyone.


—    Another important aspect of 360-degree feedback is the inclusion of self-evaluations – think about Strength, weakness


—    360-degree feedback evaluations have the advantage of confidentiality



—    360-degree feedbacks are known as multi-rater assessments since the number of evaluations is increased to include peers, supervisor and subordinates to offer a more balanced and comprehensive view and improve the quality of performance measures.


—    Benefits both the organization but also to appraise


Objectives Of 360-Degree Feedback


—    Insight into the strong and weak areas of the candidate in terms of the effective performance of roles, activities, styles, traits, qualities, competencies knowledge, attitudes and skills, impact on others and the like.


—    Identification of developmental needs and preparing developmental plans more objectively in relation to current or future roles and performance improvements for an individual or a group of individuals.


—     Data generation to serve as a more objective basis for rewards and other personnel decisions.


—     Alignment of individual and group goals with organizational vision, values and goals.


—    Reinforcement of other change management efforts and organization effectiveness directed interventions.




—    The appraiser may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents to be appraised. The appraiser should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. He should prepare reports and make judgments without bias.


—    Supervisors


—    Familiarity


—    Responsibility


—    Linking T &D


—    Peers- contribution, reliability, initiative, interpersonal effectiveness


—    Subordinates


—    Self Appraisal - MBO


360-Degree Feedback




—    The assessment is made in a questionnaire specially designed to measure behaviours considered as critical for performance


—    Others do the Appraisal anonymously and the assessment is collected by an external agent (consultant) or specially designated internal agent (for example the HR Department).


—     The assessment is consolidated. Feedback profiles are prepared and given to the employee.


—    This type of multi-perspective evaluation is more complete and accurate than the traditional top-down evaluation


360-degree feedback can be used for


—     Self development and individual counselling


—    Part of organized training and development


—    Team building


—    Performance management


—    Strategic or organization development


—     Validation of training and other initiatives



—     Fixing Remuneration Advantages of 360-Degree Feedback

—    It is more objective than a one-person assessment of traits and qualities.


—    It adds objectivity and supplements the traditional appraisal system.


—    It is more participative and enhances the quality of HR decisions.


—    It is suitable for new organizational cultures being promoted by most world-class organizations (participative culture, learning culture, quality culture teamwork, leadership culture etc)


—     Provides quality and large quantity of detailed information about a person.


—    It has morale boosting effect


Phases of Feedback Exercises


—    Orientation


—    Questionnaire distribution


—    Monitoring & following up


—    Data feeding and reports


—    Counselling


11 Career Management


Career management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one's own professional career. The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfillment, work/life balance, goal achievement and financial security


Career stages


1. Entry to the organization when the individual can begin the process of self-directed career planning.


2.   Progress within particular areas of work where skills and potential are developed through experience, training, coaching, mentoring and performance manage- ment.


3. Mid-career when some people will still have good career prospects while others may have got as far as they are going to get, or at least feel that they have. It is nec- essary to ensure that these ‗plateaued‘ people do not lose interest at this stage by taking such steps as providing them with cross-functional moves, job rotation, special assignments, recognition and rewards for effective performance, etc.


Later career when individuals may have settled down at whatever level they have reached but are beginning to be concerned about the future. They need to be treated with respect as people who are still making a contribution and given oppor- tunities to take on new challenges wherever this is  possible. They may also need reassurance about their future with the organization and what is to happen to them when they leave.


5. End of career with the organization – the possibility of phasing disengagement by being given the chance to work part time for a period before they fi nally have to go should be considered at this stage.


Career development strategy


A career development strategy might include the following activities: a policy of promoting from within wherever possible; • career routes enabling talented people to move from bottom to top of the organization, • or laterally in the fi rm, as their development and job opportunities take them; personal development planning as a major part of the performance management • process, in order to develop each individual‘s knowledge and skills; systems and processes to achieve sharing and development of knowledge (especially • tacit) across the fi rm; multi-disciplinary project teams with a shifting membership in order to offer develop- • mental opportunities for as wide a range of employees as possible.


Career management activities


As described by Hirsh and Carter (2002), career management encompasses recruitment, per-sonal development plans, lateral moves, special assignments at home or abroad, development positions, career bridges, lateral moves and support for employees who want to develop.


Career management practices 1. Postings regarding internal job openings.


2. Formal education as part of career development.


3. Performance appraisal as a basis for career planning.


4. Career counselling by manager.


5. Lateral moves to create cross-functional experience.


6. Career counselling by HR department.


7. Retirement preparation programmes.


8. Succession planning.


9. Formal mentoring.


10.            Common career paths.


11.            Dual ladder career paths (parallel hierarchy for professional staff).


12.            Books and/or pamphlets on career issues.


13.            Written personal career planning (as done by the organization or personally).


14.            Assessment centres.


15.            Peer appraisal.


16.            Career workshops.


17.            Upward (subordinate) appraisal.


The process of career management


Career planning


Career planning involves the defi nition of career paths – the routes people can take to advance their careers within an organization. It uses all the information provided by the organization‘s assessments of requirements, the assessments of performance and potential and management succession plans, and translates it into the form of individual career development programmes and general arrangements for management development, career counselling and mentoring.



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