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Chapter: Business Science - Managerial Behavior and Effectiveness - Designing The Managerial Job

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Managerial Motivation

Motivation refers to the process by which a person‘s efforts are energized directed and sustained towards attaining a goal.

Managerial Motivation

 

What is Motivation?

 

ž   Motivation refers to the process by which a person‘s efforts are energized directed and sustained towards attaining a goal.

 

ž   Three key elements I. Energy

 

II. Direction

 

III. Persistence

 

Energy:

 

The energy element is a measure of intensity or drive. A motivated person puts forth effort and works hard however the quality of effort must also be considered.

 

Direction:

 

High levels of effort do not necessarily need to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.

 

Persistence:

 

Effort that is directed toward and consistent with organization goals is the kind of effort we want from employees.

 

Finally motivation includes a persistence dimension. We want employees to persist in putting forth effort to achieve those goals.

 

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

 

ž   Maslow‘s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory

 

ž   McGregor‘s Theory X and Theory Y

 

ž   Herzberg‘s Two-Fact Theory

 

ž   McClelland‘s Three-Needs Theory Maslow‘s Hierarchy Of Needs Theory

 

ž   Maslow Argues that each levels in needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant.

 

 

ž   An individual moves up the needs hierarchy from one level to the next.

 

ž   He considered psychological and safety needs(lower order needs)

 

ž   He considered social, esteem, self actualization needs (higher order needs)

 

ž   Lower order needs are predominantly satisfied externally

 

ž   Higher order needs are satisfied internally



 

 

McGregor‘s Theory X and Theory Y

 

ž   Douglas McGregor is best known about two assumption of human nature. Theory X and Theory Y

 

ž   Theory X is a negative view of people

 

ž   Theory Y is a positive view of people

 

Theory Y assumption should guide management practice and proposed that participation and decision making responsible and challenging jobs and good group relations would maximize employee motivation.

 

Herzberg‘s Two-Fact Theory

 

ž   Also Called motivation hygiene theory

 

ž   Have two factors

 

 

(i)Intrinsic factors: job satisfaction

(ii)Extrinsic factors: job dissatisfaction


 


McClelland‘s Three-Needs Theory

 

ž   David McClelland and his associates proposed the three needs theory which says there are three acquired(not innate{not in born}) needs that are major motivators in work

 

ž   Three needs are:

 

i.         Need for achievement

 

ii.         Need for power

 

iii.         Need for Affiliation


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