Concept of childcare:
The increasing complexity of medical and nursing techniques has created a need for special area for childcare. The childcare has prime importance, as the mortality and morbidity are higher in this group. Many diseases are preventable such as nutritional deficiency.
The goal of the paediatric nursing is to foster the growth and development of the children and promote an optimum state of health physically, mentally, and socially, so that they may function at the peak of their capacity.
Since most of the responses of children are influenced by the phases of growth and development, the ages of the child are the most significant factor affecting nursing activities.
For example, fractured jaw is more traumatic to an infant who is in oral phase of the development than to a child of the six years of age who has already passed this phase. The separation of the family during the hospitalisation will cause an anxiety in the young child and may disturb the parent-child relationship.
The nurse can minimise the psychological trauma of a hospitalisation experience by helping the children to adjust to the situation rather than to repress their feelings. Play therapy has an importance in childcare, by which children can play out their problems.
To provide comprehensive care to children, the nurse must clearly understand the effect of illness and hospitalization experience, upon the growth and development process of children and the effect of the developmental status of the children upon their responses to therapy.
The role of the paediatric nurse has been influenced by the research findings in other health disciplines of prevention and therapy, in various areas of genetics, drugs, medical, and surgical techniques. It is also influenced by the research carried out within the nursing profession itself.
The concept of assessment of children is important for providing care to patients and their families. The function of the paediatric nurse is to promote and support children in their adaptation process. The nurse must observe the children's health and illness state, their strengths and weaknesses, and effectiveness of their coping mechanism.
Nursing children require a better sense of responsibility and better judgment of children's health, responses, and planning for nursing management. The nurse must have patience and emotional balance while dealing with the children and their parents, specially, in critically ill cases.