![if !IE]> <![endif]>
Child health nursing- Principles and practices
Indian traditional child care practices are beneficial and are adopted from western nursing care system such as, breast feeding and contact of a mother with the child during the hospitalisation. However many childcare practices are harmful, such as, late weaning, care based on superstitions and so on.
Despite the changes in scientific technology and health care system, there has been little awareness to change harmful practices. Government policies based on the WHO program, has created progress in preventive pediatrics to some extent. The national plan is to achieve the target of health for all and 100% coverage of immunisation, by 2000 A.D."(WHO).
This plan has developed entire national health services to reach to the roots of the community through Maternal and Child Health Services.
In India, infant mortality rates are still high compared to developed countries. According to WHO, Japan has the lowest infant mortality of 4 per 1,000, against India's infant mortality rate of 77 per 1,000 (WHO, 1995).
India's target is to achieve the infant mortality rate below 60 per 1,000 by the year 2,000. There is an utmost need for better child care, especially neonatal and infant care becomes very important to achieve this target. In India, the mortality rate of under five children is reported 105 per 1,000. In Japan, it is 6 per 1,000 in 1995 (WHO, 1995).
If we consider causes of infant mortality, we find poor socioeconomic conditions and maternal ill health during pregnancy resulting in intrauterine growth retardation and pre-maturity, bad obstetrical practices, and neonatal infections such as diarrhoea, bronchopneumonia, and meningitis. Many causes of infant mortality and morbidity are preventable.
Nurses play the pivotal role in preventing infections, improving nutritional status, improving intra natal and immediate postnatal care techniques in the hospital as well as in the community. This can be done by demonstration, health education, and guidance to the parents and children for creating awareness and making changes toward better health care practices.
Health care of children has been markedly changed in developed countries. There is a change in the view of children from "miniature adults" to "unique individuals" with special needs and qualities.
The child health care system should focus 'to' meet the needs of the children and their families by providing comprehensive child health care during the illness as well as in health.
The child health care is required for promotion of health, prevention of diseases, provision of treatment, and follows up. Preventive measures should be practiced in wards, clinics, centers, and in the community, to help the people to prevent or solve their health problems.
Every nurse has her responsibility, in her area of work, in whatever capacity she works in relation to childcare.
Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.