The blood :-
The blood is a fluid connective tissue. It consists of liquid plasma and cells. The plasma makes up 55% of the total volume and 45% of cells or formed elements. The total blood volume in human female is about 4-5 litres and 5-6 litres in males.
Plasma :- The blood plasma is a slightly alkaline fluid. It is straw coloured.
Composition of plasma : Components with Functions
1. Water - as a slovent and suspending medium for blood components.
2. Plasma proteins- Albumin Globulins Fibrinogen - Osmotic pressure, Antibody formation, Blood clotting.
3. Ions - Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl ,2Fe, PO , H and HCO - Osmosis, acid-base balance. buffer etc.,
4. Nutrients - Glucose, amino acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamins. - source of energy, building blocks, enzyme activity.
5. Waste products - Urea, uric acid creatinine, ammonia - excreted by the kidneys. Bilirubin : breakdown product of erythrocytes, Lactic acid : product of anaerobic respiration.
6. Gases(Oxygen,CO base 2,Nitrogen) - Oxygen: for aerobic respiration, CorbanDioxide: waste product of respiration, Nitrogen: inert gas.
7. Regulating substances Hormones and Enzymes - body functions
There are three types of blood cells or corpuscles. They are
1. Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC) or Erythrocytes
2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC) or Leucocytes
3. Blood Platelets or Thrombocytes