COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING - PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES
In the history of public health, 19th century makes a turning point. Several reformers notably Frank (1745-84) and Edvin Chadwik (1800 -1890) in England published reports focusing the attention of government and people on the need for sanitary reforms.
A movement known as sanitary awakening started in England in the 20th century. The broad foundation of public health viz., safe drinking water, clean environment were held in all civilization.
Public health began to make rapid growth during 20th century. The role of nurse also began to expand along these lines. A remarkable development in public health was the successful control at many communicable diseases. Medicine and nursing began to link themselves to social sciences for a better understanding at these newer health problems.
On the international scenario the birth of WHO in 1946 gave impetus to the strengthening at medical and nursing services. All over the world a new era dawned signing positive health. There was shift of emphasis from the sick to the well person, from the individual to the community. Health has been recognised as a fundamental right of all human being
The term public health, preventive medicine and social medicine were found inadequate and were replaced by community health, which is much broader in the scope of public health or preventive medicine.
WHO set a goal at health for all by 2000 AD and prescribed primary health care at reasonable level and that health care to be attained by all by the year 2000 AD.
The concept of community health has also permeated into nursing and gave birth to the concept of community nursing. Community health has been integrated into basic curriculum at nursing in 1958 by the Indian Nursing Council. The recent development in the concept of primary health and the goal at health care for all by 2000 AD has attached the nursing component at the health care system in the country. It has led to restructuring the pattern at rural health services. Every nurse has her responsibility in her area of work in whatever capacity she works in relation to community health services.