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CIPHER FEEDBACK MODE
For AES, DES, or any block cipher, encryption is performed on a block of b bits. In the case of DES, b = 64 and in the case of AES, b = 128. However, it is possible to convert a block cipher into a stream cipher, using one of the three modes to be dis- cussed in this and the next two sections: cipher feedback (CFB) mode, output feed- back (OFB) mode, and counter (CTR) mode. A stream cipher eliminates the need to pad a message to be an integral number of blocks. It also can operate in real time. Thus, if a character stream is being transmitted, each character can be encrypted and transmitted immediately using a character-oriented stream cipher.
One desirable property of a stream cipher is that the ciphertext be of the same length as the plaintext. Thus, if 8-bit characters are being transmitted, each character should be encrypted to produce a ciphertext output of 8 bits. If more than 8 bits are produced, transmission capacity is wasted.
Figure 6.5 depicts the CFB scheme. In the figure, it is assumed that the unit of transmission is s bits; a common value is s = 8. As with CBC, the units of plaintext are chained together, so that the ciphertext of any plaintext unit is a function of all the preceding plaintext. In this case, rather than blocks of b bits, the plaintext is divided into segments of s bits.
First, consider encryption. The input to the encryption function is a b-bit shift register that is initially set to some initialization vector (IV). The leftmost (most sig- nificant) s bits of the output of the encryption function are XORed with the first segment of plaintext P1 to produce the first unit of ciphertext C1, which is then transmitted. In addition, the contents of the shift register are shifted left by s bits, and C1 is placed in the rightmost (least significant) s bits of the shift register. This process continues until all plaintext units have been encrypted.
For decryption, the same scheme is used, except that the received ciphertext unit is XORed with the output of the encryption function to produce the plaintext unit. Note that it is the encryption function that is used, not the decryption func- tion. This is easily explained. Let MSBs(X) be defined as the most significant s bits of X. Then
C1 = P1 Ⓧ MSBs[E(K, IV)]
Therefore, by rearranging terms:
P1 = C1 Ⓧ MSBs[E(K, IV)]
The same reasoning holds for subsequent steps in the process.
We can define CFB mode as follows.
Although CFB can be viewed as a stream cipher, it does not conform to the typical construction of a stream cipher. In a typical stream cipher, the cipher takes as input some initial value and a key and generates a stream of bits, which is then XORed with the plaintext bits (see Figure 3.1). In the case of CFB, the stream of bits that is XORed with the plaintext also depends on the plaintext.
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