FIRST AID AND EMERGENCIES
First aid was being practical from ancient times. It was the
famous surgeon who was the first to conceive the idea of first aid. He was General Esmarch (1823-1908).
In 1877 St John Ambulance Association of England was formed in 1920, The Red Cross society of India was
established with more than 400 branches all over India.
Aid: refers to treatment by a doctor
either on the sport at home or in
Aid is the immediate and temporary care
given to an injured or sick person
until the services of a qualified doctor are obtained with such material as may
be available. The first aid is not an end by itself. It indicates that the
person is in need of a secondary aid.
First aid is based on the knowledge
of biology, medicine and surgery. It can be a life saving skill .
First aider :
The person who renders emergency
service on the spot until the medical aid is obtained.
A sound knowledge based on first aid
enables a nurse to give skilled services during accidents and sudden illness to
preserve life promote recovery and prevent injury or illness being aggravated
until the medical aid has been obtained.
To save life
Adverse effects of injury are
To ease the Pain-to reduce Pain.
To avoid further injury.
Prepare for medical treatment
To assist the doctor.
Scope of first aid
Observation and information elicited will
enable for diagnosis.
nurse (nurse) decides on the character and
extends of the treatment and applies the most suitable treatment until the
doctor' s help is available.
Basic principles and rules of first
Obtain a correct detailed history
Observe and examine thoroughly and
note every symptom.
Treat the casualty until the details
arrives or patient is shifted to the near by hospital.
If the accident is at home- call
neighbour, if the accident is at the public place -call police
Keep phone numbers of doctor, police
Be calm and quick, be methodical and
find out all major injuries.
In stoppage of breathing, start
Try to stop bleeding.
Prevent shock if present and shift
to near by hospital
Keep the patient warm. Do not move
Do only what is necessary.
Reassure the casualty
Allow fresh air
means of transport at emergency 11. For serious accident inform police.
An accident is an event, which happens unexpectedly. The
extent of the injury depends on various factors. The accidents, which are most
likely to come across, are as follows.
Sprains and dislocations
Fractures (broken bones)
Burns and scalds.
Some times there may be a history given that the patient has
received an injury to the head or some other part of the body but there is no
However in these cases the patient may be unconscious, may
show signs of shock or may complain of pain. In all such cases you transfer the
patient to the Health Center immediately.
As you are a nurse and the aim of your assistance is as
To prevent immediate danger of
Give artificial respiration.
Guard against shock or treat for
Do not remove clothing
Reassure the patient and relieve
Arrange for removal of the patient
to the nearest Hospital