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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Approaches of health education in Nursing

The nurse and other health workers must be aware of all these laws, eg. Primary vaccination against small-pox is compulsory in India.


1. Regulatory approach

There are occasions when people are indifferent to their own health thus endangering the health of the community, in which case the regulatory or legal approach seeks to protect the health of the public through the enforcement of laws and regulations.


The nurse and other health workers must be aware of all these laws, eg. Primary vaccination against small-pox is compulsory in India.


2.  Servicing approach


This is mainly the responsibility of the health department and health workers both in government and non-government health agencies.

The service or administrative approach aims at providing all the health facilities needed by the community so that the people will make use of them in order to improve their own health.


The service approach will be a failure when it is not based on the "felt needs" of the people. Hence all health workers must find out the problems and needs of the people before teaching and providing care to them.

3.  Educational approach


The educational approach is considered as one of the important means for bringing about changes in the health practices of people and helping them to recognise their health need.


It involves proper communication and motivation of the community to make the right decision in order to attain health. Though it is a good method, it is a slow perseverance to have permanent and enduring results.


However small it may be, educational approach may be classified as follows:

4Individual approach


This is usually done by the health worker (nurse) wherever and whenever she comes in contact with individuals who need knowledge, guidance and counselling regarding individual health problems and needs. Personal interviews can be planned or unplanned.


Individual health teaching can be done in the hospitals, homes and any health care institutions. In order to teach individuals, we must develop skills and have sufficient knowledge to gain the confidence of the people (learners).


First of all the nurse should set a good example by practicing principles of healthy living. Example is a good method of teaching.


She should practise good health habits such as regular exercises, rest, sleep, personal cleanliness, wearing clean uniforms, washing hands after touching infected materials and before eating and so on.


Good food, safe water and good food habits are essential to promote, maintain and prevent deficiency diseases. It is important that she gives major consideration to the selection, cooking and eating of proper foods.


Safe and clean environment is necessary wherever we live and work. Cleanliness is next to godliness and all health workers should maintain cleanliness and have proper disposal of waste and refuse. This will help in the prevention and spreading of diseases to a great extent.


Often in busy hospitals, health centers, clinics etc., one may not find much time of frequency planned health teaching programmes. Therefore the nurse must bear in mind that incidental teaching is an on-going process and she should be on the lookout for health teaching opportunities.


For example while giving patient care she should make health education an essential component. It may be about personal hygiene, balanced food or how to prevent certain diseases etc. Teaching may be given to patient's relatives and friends. Teaching may be given to patient's illness and how they can help the patient during and after the period of illness.


Health teaching is also useful to individual hospital workers (Class IV staff). They should be helped in maintaining a clean and safe environment in order to prevent hospital cross infection and spread of communicable disease.


The nurse should teach and supervise the workers in the collection and disposal of waste, collection of soiled linen, washing of hands of those attending to the toilet of patients, washing bed pans etc.


5.  Family approach


The family is an important unit of society, and individual problem affects the whole family. They are often emotionally involved and much worried about the individual who is suffering.

Usually much can be done during home visit. Family members can be taught how to look after the sick, how to prevent home accidents, food budgeting and planning, care of the children, care of the pregnant mothers, family welfare services (family planning), immunization and all about personal and environmental sanitation.


6.  Group approach


This is usually organized to teach small groups, which will facilitate discussion, exchange of ideas and clearing of doubts after the teaching is over for a short period.


Better results are achieved when groups of people with similar interest are selected for example, patients with similar problems, interest and needs. Also needs of school children, adolescents, industrial worker, mothers and fathers will be different, and they may be taken separately.


The health worker should plan well ahead of time or organization groups in the wards, clinics and community centers at a convenient place and time suitable to them. Suitable audio visual aids must be selected to have good results.

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11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes : Approaches of health education in Nursing |

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