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It is defined as energy per unit weight of the liquid with respect to the bottom of the channel. The extra information needed to solve the above problem can be provided by the specific energy equation. Specific energy, Es, is defined as the energy of the flow with reference to the channel bed as the datum:
Total Energy on open channel flow
E= Z+y+ V2/2g
Considering the bed as datum line , z=0
From Specific Energy curve , Corresponding to the Minimum specific energy E(min) ,there is only one depth of floe that is called Critical depth.
Critical Flow and Critical Velocity
Depth of flow of water at which the specific energy. E is minimum is called as critical depth (yc). For rectangular channel, critical depth,
Velocity of flow at the critical depth is called critical velocity Vc
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