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Social Science : History
Early Tamil Society and Culture
V. Answer the following questions briefly
1. Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history - Discuss.
• Archaeology excavation at the early historic sites are the source of evidence of the activities of the sangam Age people.
• Excavation sites : Arikkamedu, Azhagankulam, Uraiyur, Kanchipuram, Kaveripoompatinam, Korkai, Vasavasamudram, Keezhadi, Kodumanal in Tamilnadu, Pattanam in Kerala provide the evidence.
• The sangam Age port Arikkamedu, near Puducherry, was excavated. In this excavation it was found evidence of a planned town include warehouse, streets, tanks and ring wells.
2. How important are coins as a source of evidence for the study of Sangam Age?
• The coins of the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas, Punch - Marked coins, Roman coins form an important source of evidence from the sangam Age. Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the sangam Age.
• Punch marked coins have been found at Kodumanal and Bodinayakkanur and Roman coins in the Coimbatore region.
3. Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in Sangam Age. Give reasons.
Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in Sangam Age.
• Crops like paddy, sugarcane, millets were cultivated in the riverine and tank-irrigated areas. Paddy was cultivated. Millets were cultivated in dry lands
• Varieties of rice such as sennel (Red rice) vennel (White rice) and aivananel (a type of rice) are mentioned in the literature. In Adichanallur and Porunthal excavations rice grains were found in burial urns. Forest people adopted punam or shifting cultivations.
4. Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support.
Examples in support of overseas Interactions with Tamilagam:
• Roman ships used monsoon winds to cross the western sea or the Arabian sea to connected Tamilagam.
• There was trade relation with yavanar - Westerners including the Greeks, Romans and West Asian People (Yavana - derives from the Greek region of Ionic)
• The excavated things discovered at Berenike, Quseir al Qadhim on the Red sea and Khuan luk pat in Thailand.
• In Tamil literature Southeast Asia was known as Suvarna Bhumi.
(Export: Spices including pepper, Ivory, Precious Stones
Import: Metals including gold, Silver, Copper)
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