COLONIALISM IN ASIA AND AFRICA
V. Answer the following briefly
1. Distinguish between Colonialism and Imperialism.
• Colonialism is a process of domination, involving the subjugation of one people by another.
• The practice of colonialism usually involved the transfer of population to a new territory, where the arrivals lived as permanent settlers.
• Imperialism, on the other hand, draws attention to the way one country exercises power over another, whether through settlement, sovereignty, or indirect mechanisms of control.
2. Write a note on Zulu tribe.
The Zulu tribe was known for its strong fighting spirit, represented by renowned warriors like Shaka Zulu. British troops invaded Zulu territory and divided it into thirteen chiefdoms. The Zulus never regained their independence and had to fight against deeply entrenched racism in South Africa for about a century..
3. State the three phases in the colonialisation of Indian economy.
a. Phase I Mercantilist Capitalism
b. Phase II Industrial Capitalism
c. Phase III Financial Capitalism
4. Colonel Pennycuick.
• Colonel Pennycuick was an army Engineer and Civil Servant who also served as a member of the Madras Legislative Council.
• He decided to divert the west-flowing Periyar river draining into the Arabian Sea to the east so that it could irrigate lakhs of acres of dry land dependent on the Vaigai river.
• Though Pennycuick and other British engineers went ahead with the construction, braving nature's fury and the dangers of poisonous insects and wild animals, the construction was disrupted by relentless rain. Since he could not get adequate funds from the British government, Pennycuick went to England and sold his family property to mobilise money to fund the project, which was completed in 1895.
5. Explain Home Charges.
• The Company remitted to England what was called Home Charges - the dividends on East India's stock, interest on debt, savings from salaries and the pensions of officers and establishments and buildings in the India Office, London, transporting cost of British troops to and from India.
• This drain of wealth in the form of Home Charges in course of time rose to 16 million pounds per year, excluding the private remittances that worked to 10 million pounds.