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COLONIALISM IN ASIA AND AFRICA
VI. Answer in detail
1. Discuss the economic impact of British Rule in India.
Economic Impact of British Rule
a) The permanent Settlement (1793)
• During the period of Lord Cornwollis there was a class landlords or Zamindars with a right to own, bequeath and inherit land. The cultivators were reduce to the positions of more tenants.
• This settlement was made in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and is called the Permanent Settlement.
b) The Ryotwari system,
• The different revenue system introduced in South India was the Ryotwari system.
• The individual holders were registered and permitted to sell, leaseout, mortgage or transfer their right over the land. In case of default, apart from eriction and attachment of livestock, even household property or personal belonging could be attached.
Land Revenue and the Pauperisation of Peasantry
a) Land Tax:
• The main source of revenue to the British 'the land tax' was collected forcibly.
b) Money Lenders:
• As there was no credit facility the peasants had to depend on money lenders.
c) Commercialization of Agriculture :
• The colonial slate pursued a policy of 'commercialization of Agriculture'. Commercial crops like cotton, jute, grandnuts, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco depending on the market demands fetched better prices. The peasant had to depend on the price trend.
• The British neglected irrigation in the first half of 19th century.
• The policy of free trade and the forcible collection of land revenue resulted in the out break of famines.
• The Odisha famine - (1866-67), The Great famine - (1876 - 78).
2. Explain the process of colonisation in Africa.
Colonisation of Africa.
• The invasion, occupation, colonisation and annexation of African territories by European powers between 1881 and 1914, the era Imperialism is called the scramble for Africa or partition of Africa.
• Before 1875 the sub-saharan Africa was almost unknown to the outside world. The interior of Africa was unexplored.
• The British possession - Natal, cape colony. The Dutch (locally known Boers) possession - Transvall, orange free - state.
• In 1886 gold was discovered in Transvall and large number of British miners settled in and around Hohannesburgo. The Boers feared and hated the miners. The Boers called them Uitlanders (foreigners).
• The Prime Minister of capecolony encouraged the British expansion to the north of Transvaal. Thus worsened the relations of the Boers and the British. This led to the Boer war, 26000 Boer people were dead due to the shortage of food, beds, medical and sanitary facilities.
• In 1909 the four states finally decided to form a union and south Africa as a state was born.
• The British South African company founded in 1889 conducted an expedition.
• The white immigrants were provided with farm lands, railways and a telegraphy system developed. The colony came to be called Rhodesia after cecil Rhodes.
• Leopold was forced to relinquish and in 1908 sovereignty over the congo passed from Leopold to Belgium.
• The British East India Company adminstered the British area of the Sultan of Zonzibar.
Portuguese Angola and Mozambique:
• The Portuguese had Guinea since 16th century. After 1870 the Portuguese arrived in great numbers and settled in Angola and Mozambique on the West and East coast of Southern Africa.
( The only two countries manage to evade European colonism - Liberia and Ethiopia)
• The coastal states of Gold coast became a British colony in 1854
• Nigeria was used for slave trading.
• The Royal Niger company was formed in 1886 and was taken over in 1900.
• Senegal had been a french base.
• Later Guinea, Ivory coast and Dahomey were linked up with south of Sahara.
VII. Activities (For Students)
1. Prepare an album with pictures and images of famines that affected different parts of India during the British colonial rule.
2. Attempt an account of the cultural relations between India and Southeast Asia.
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