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VIII. Answer in detail.
1. Write about South West Monsoon.
The southwest monsoon is the most significant feature of the Indian climate.
• The onset of the monsoon takes place normally over the Southern tip of the country by the first week of June.
• It covers the whole country by 15th July.
• Prior to the onset of the Southwest Monsoon, the temperature in North India reaches up to 46°C.
• The sudden approach of monsoon wind over South India with lightning and thunder is termed as the 'Break' or 'Burst of Monsoon'.
• It lowers the temperature of India to a large extent.
• The monsoon wind strikes against the southern tip of Indian land mass and gets divided into two branches.
They are i) The Arabian sea branch and ii) The Bay of Bengal branch.
Arabian sea branch:
• The Arabian Sea branch of Southwest Monsoon gives heavy rainfall to the west coast of India as it is located in the windward side of the Western Ghats. The other part advances towards north.
• It is obstructed by Himalayan mountains and results in heavy rainfall in north. As Aravalli mountain is located parallel to the wind direction, Rajasthan and western part do not get much rainfall.
Bay of Bengal branch:
• The Bay of Bengal branch moves towards Northeast India and Myanmar.
• The wind is trapped by a chain of mountains like Garo, Khasi and Jainthia. The heaviest rainfall is caused at Mawsynram.
• Later this wind travels towards west which results in decrease in rainfall from east to west.
2. Describe the forests of India.
On the basis of climate, soil and landforms the forest of India can be divides into the following types.
• Tropical Evergreen Forest
• Tropical Deciduous Forest
• Tropical Dry Forest
• Mountain (Montane) Forest
• Alpine Forest
• Tidal Forest
• Coast Forest
• Riverine Forest
Tropical Evergreen Forest:
Tropical evergreen forests are found in the regions where the annual rainfall is more than 200 cm.
• Areas: Western Ghats in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Assam, West Bengal, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram and Manipur.
• Trees found: Rubber, mahogany, ebony, rosewood, coconut, bamboo, cinchona and palm.
Tropical Deciduous Forest (Monsoon Forest):
Tropical deciduous forests are found in areas with 100 to 200 of rainfall
• Area: Sub Himalayan Region, Great Plains, Central India and South India.
• Trees found: Sandalwood, rosewood, teak, sal, kusum, mahua, palas, haldu, amla, padauk and bamboo.
Tropical Dry Forest:
These forests are found in areas with 50 to 100 cm of rainfall
• Areas: East Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Maharashtra, Telangana, West Karnataka and East Tamilnadu.
• Trees found: Mahua, banyan, amaltas, palas, haldu, kikar, bamboo, babool and khair.
Mountain (Montane) Forest:
Eastern Himalayan Forest:
• These trees are found in areas having 200 cm of rainfall.
• Areas: On the slopes of the mountains in North-east states.
• Trees found: Sal, oak, laurel, amura, chestnut, cinnamon, Oak, birch, silver, fir, fine, spruce and juniper.
Western Himalayan Forest:
• These vegetations are found in areas where there is moderate rainfall.
• Areas: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
• Trees found: Bushes and small trees and Chir.
• Area: All along the Himalayas with 2400 m altitude
• Coniferous trees: Oak, silver fir, pine, juniper
Tidal Forest (Delta or Swamp Forest):
• Areas: In and around the deltas and estuaries
• The delta of the Ganga - Brahmaputra, the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna. They are also called Mangrove forest.
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