the circumstances that led to the rise of Hitler in Germany.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party' (Nazi Party) was
founded in Munich in 1919 by a group of seven members. One of them was Adolf
• During world War I, Hitler served the Bavarian army.
• As a good speaker he won the hearts of the people.
• In 1923, he attempted to capture power. But he failed. So he
• During his time in prison, he wrote the book 'Mein Kampf'.
• In the Presidential election of 1932, the Communist party
polled about 6,000,000 votes.
• Alarmed capitalists and property owners began to support
Fascism. Hitler used this opportunity to usurp powers.
Nazi State of
• As the communists refused to collaborate with the democrats
the Republican government fell.
The industrialists, bankers and junkers prevailed upon President
Von Hindenburg to designate Hitler as Chancellor in 1933. This Nazi state of
Hitler was known as the Third Reich.
• Hitler declared all the political parties except the Nazi
party as illegal.
• He introduced many reforms and the whole country came under
• In August 1934, Hindenburg died. Hitler became both the
President and Commander in Chief of the army, besides being the Chancellor.
a narrative account of how the process of decolonization happened in India
during the inter-war period (1919-39).
The decolonization process started in India from the beginning
of 20th century with the launch of the Swadeshi Movement in 1905. There was
rapid political as well as economic changes at the outbreak of the First World
War in 1914.
Dyarchy in Provinces:
• The Government of India Act of 1919 introduced Dyarchy in the
provinces. It provided for elected provincial assemblies as well as for Indian
ministers to hold certain portfolios under Transferred subjects.
• The Indian National Congress rejected the arrangements under
Dyarchy and decided to boycott the legislature.
Lack of measures to
• There was no change in the colonial economic policy, despite
the discriminating protection given to certain industries such as sugar, cement
and chemicals from 1921.
• The Government of British India provided incentives for the
British iron and steel industry by guaranteeing purchasing contracts. But in
the case of indigenous industries, support was only in the form of providing,
"technical advice and education" sponsored by the government.
Depression on Indian Agriculture:
• The Great Depression gave a death blow to Indian agriculture
and indigenous manufacturing sector. The value of farm produce declined by
half, but the land rent to be paid by the peasant remained unchanged.
• Farmers and Indian manufacturers had to sell their gold and
silver resources to subsist and survive. The great fall in prices prompted
Indian nationalists to demand protection for the internal economy.
Government of India
• This Act provided for greater power of the local Governments
and the introduction of direct elections.
• The Indian National Congress won a resounding victory in most
of the provinces. Without consulting the Congress ministries, the British
involved India in the World War II. So the Congress ministries in the provinces
resigned from office.
the rise and growth of nationalist politics in South Africa.
• There were two main political parties in South Africa.
Unionist party (mainly British)
❖ The South Africa Party (largely Afrikaners / Boers)
• Botha, the first Prime Minister, belonged to the South Africa
Party ruled in cooperation with the British.
• A militant section of the South Africa Party formed the
National Party under Herzog.
• In the 1920 elections the National party gained 44 seats. The
South Africa Party, now led by Smuts, secured 41 seats.
• At this Juncture the British-dominated Unionist Party merged
with the South Africa Party. This gave Smuts a majority over the militant
Afrikaner- controlled National Party.
student may be asked to write an assignment on how each sector and each section
of population in the USA came to be affected by the Stock Market Crash in 1929.
group project work on Vietnam War is desirable. An album or pictures,
portraying the air attacks of the US on Vietnam and the brave resistance put up
by the Vietnamese may be prepared.