EXTRINSIC RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY DISORDERS
Extrinsic restrictive pulmonary disorders alter gas exchange by interfering with normal lung expan-sion. They include pleural effusions, pneumothorax, mediastinal masses, kyphoscoliosis, pectus exca-vatum, neuromuscular disorders, and increased intraabdominal pressure from ascites, pregnancy, or bleeding. Marked obesity also produces a restric-tive ventilatory defect. Anesthetic considerations are similar to those discussed for intrinsic restrictive disorders.