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Anemia is a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells and a deficiency of hemoglobin resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity.
Blood loss related to trauma, decreased production of plalets. Increased destruction of platelets and decreased number of clotting factor.
Impairment of RBC production due to nutritional deficiency, (eg Iron deficiency, folic deficiency, Vitamin
B12 deficiency, Vitamin B6 deficiency.
Decreased erythrocyte production, bone narrow depression.
Increased erythrocycte destruction due to
Drugs and chemicals.
Abnormalities of RBC membrane.
Abnormal hemoglobin synthesis-sickle cell, disease, thalasemia syndrome.
RBCs and hemoglobin are normally formed at the same rate at which they are destroyed.
Whenever formation of RBCs or hemoglobin is decreased or their destruction is increased, anemia results.
Sign and symptoms:
1. Early Symptoms:
Restlessness, Fatigability and Anorexia related to decreased energy.
2. Late symptoms:
Pallor, Weakness, Tachycardia, palpitation, Tachypneoa, shortness of breath.
1. Complete blood count.
2. Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Types of Anemia
1. Anemia from blood loss: Hemorrhage or continued slow bleeding will cause anemia.
2. Iron deficiency Anemia: It may result from faulty eating habits (Poor diets or hurrying meals)
3. Pernicious Anemia: A patient with pernicious Anemia lacks substances in the gastric juice called instinct factor, which is necessary to enable the body to absorb vitamin B12 from food.
4. Sickle cell anemia: It is genetic disease in which the red blood cells become sickled in shape due to the presence of abnormal hemoglobin.
5. Aplastic anemia: It results from disease of the bone marrow (where most blood cells are produced.) whereby the marrow is destroyed.
6. Megaloblastic anemia: It is caused by deficiency of the vitamin B12 and folic acid. This shows identical bone arrow and peripheral blood changes, because both vitamins are essential for normal DNA synthesis.
7. Hemolytic anemia: The erythrocyte has a shortened life span.
1. Anemia from blood loss: Replace the blood cells by transfusion and sometime to administer iron supplements.
2. Iron-deficiency Anemia: Take extra iron containing food.
3. Pernicious Anemia: Take vitamin B 12 containing foods An injection every 2 or 3 weeks will allow the person to live normally.
Sickle cell Anemia: Citadels citrate , pentoxifyllin, vanillin oil as anti sickly effects evaluated as adjunctive therapy for sickle cell anemia. Blood transfusion and folic acid therapy is administered.
1. Aplasstic anemia: Two methods of treatments are currently employed. Bone marrow transplantation and Administration of immunosuppressive therapy with entity
2. Megaloblastic anemia: Injection B12 is administered, provide nutritious diet and folic acid 1 mg per day.
i)Offer small amount of foods at frequent intervals.
ii) Provide iron-rich foods and vitamins
iii) Teach and assist with good hygienic practices,.
iv) Good dietary habits.
1. Mental sluggishness
2. Growth retardation
Delayed puberty related to growth retardation.
Cardiac failure related to circulatory collapse and shock resulting in death.
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