Ancylostomiasis is commonly found in children of rural area or in the urban area where children live in the neighbourhood of field or open grounds. Infective larvae enter the human skin through hair folicles, or under particles of dequamating epidermis.
They migrate the blood vessels, enter the venules, and are carried to the lungs through the right side of the heart and lodged in the pulmonary capillaries. From capillaries they penetrate the alveoli, migrate up the respiratory tract, pass over the epiglottis and are swallowed.
On the arrival in the small intestine, they become attached to a villus and suck the blood. Each female hook worm lays several thousands eggs a day. As each worm sucks the blood, a mild or severe anaemia may develop. Anaemia may develop gradually, but it can lead to cardiac failure.
Signs and symptoms:
1. Epigastric pain
2. Fatigue and weakness
3. Pica may be present
4. Eosinophilia may be found.
Tetrachloroethelene is prescribed. It is usually administered in the single dose, on empty stomach, in the morning. The food is offered two hour after the dose. Tetramisole and Bephenium are the other drugs that could be prescribed to treat hook worm infestation.
1. Detection and early treatment of all infested persons can reduce soil contamination.
2. Use of the sanitory latrines helps to prevent the spread of the infestation.
Habit of using a foot wear helps to prevent the contact with the soil contaminated with hookworms, in the open fields.