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Chapter: Microprocessor and Microcontroller - I/O Interfacing

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8279 Programmable Keyboard/Display Controller

Intel’s 8279 is a general purpose Keyboard Display controller that simultaneously drives the display of a system and interfaces a Keyboard with the CPU.

8279 Programmable Keyboard/Display Controller

 

Intel’s 8279 is a general purpose Keyboard Display controller that simultaneously drives the display of a system and interfaces a Keyboard with the CPU. The Keyboard Display interface scans the Keyboard to identify if any key has been pressed and sends the code of the pressed key to the CPU. It also transmits the data received from the CPU, to the display device.

Both of these functions are performed by the controller in repetitive fashion without involving the CPU. The Keyboard is interfaced either in the interrupt or the polled mode. In the interrupt mode, the processor is requested service only if any key is pressed, otherwise the CPU can proceed with its main task.

 

In the polled mode, the CPU periodically reads an internal flag of 8279 to check for a key pressure. The Keyboard section can interface an array of a maximum of 64 keys with the CPU. The Keyboard entries (key codes) are debounced and stored in an 8-byte FIFO RAM, that is further accessed by the CPU to read the key codes. If more than eight characters are entered in the FIFO (i.e. more that eight keys are pressed), before any FIFO read operation, the overrun status is set. If a FIFO contains a valid key entry, the CPU is interrupted (in interrupt mode) or the CPU checks the status (in polling) to read the entry.

 

Once the CPU reads a key entry, the FIFO is updated, i.e. the key entry is pushed out of the FIFO to generate space for new entries. The 8279 normally provides a maximum of sixteen 7-seg display interface with CPU It contains a 16-byte display RAM that can be used either as an integrated block of 16x8-bits or two 16x4-bit block of RAM. The data entry to RAM block is controlled by CPU using the command words of the 8279.

 

ü Architecture and Signal Descriptions of 8279

The Keyboard display controller chip 8279 provides

1. A set of four scan lines and eight return lines for interfacing keyboards.

2. A set of eight output lines for interfacing display.

 

ü I/O Control and Data Buffer

 

The I/O control section controls the flow of data to/from the 8279. The data buffer interface the external bus of the system with internal bus of 8279 the I/O section is enabled only if D is low.


The pin Ao, RD and WR select the command, status or data read/write operations carried out by the CPU with 8279.

 

ü Control and Timing Register and Timing Control

 

These registers store the keyboard and display modes and other operating conditions programmed by CPU. The registers are written with Ao=1 and WR =0. The timing and control unit controls the basic timings for the operation of the circuit. Scan Counter divide down the operating frequency of 8279 to derive scan keyboard and scan display frequencies.

 

ü Scan Counter

 

The Scan Counter has two modes to scan the key matrix and refresh the display. In the Encoded mode, the counter provides a binary count that is to be externally decoded to provide the scan lines for keyboard and display (four externally decoded scan lines may drive up to 16 displays). In the decoded scan mode, the counter internally decodes the least significant 2 bits and provides a decoded 1 out of 4 scan on SL0-SL3 (four internally decoded scan lines may drive up to 4 Displays). The Keyboard and Display both are in the same mode at a time.

 

Return Buffers and Keyboard Debounce and Control

 

This section scans for a Key closure row-wise. If it is detected, the Keyboard debounce unit debounces the key entry (i.e. wait for 10 ms). After the debounce period, if the key continues to be detected. The code of the Key is directly transferred to the sensor RAM along with SHIFT and CONTROL key status.

 

FIFO/Sensor RAM and Status Logic

 

In Keyboard or strobed input mode, this block acts as 8-byte first-in-first-out (FIFO) RAM. Each key code of the pressed key is entered in the order of the entry, and in the meantime, read by the CPU, till the RAM becomes empty. The status logic generates an interrupt request after each FIFO read operation till the FIFO is empty.

 

In scanned sensor matrix mode, this unit acts as sensor RAM. Each row of the sensor RAM is loaded with the status of the corresponding row of sensors in the matrix. If a sensor changes its state, the IRQ line goes high to interrupt the CPU.

 

Display Address Registers and Display RAM.

 

The Display address registers hold the addresses of the word currently being written or read by the CPU to or from the display RAM. The contents of the registers are automatically updated by 8279 to accept the next data entry by CPU. The 16-byte display RAM contains the 16-byte of data to be displayed on the sixteen 7-seg displays in the encoded scan mode.

 

ü Pin Diagram of 8279

DB0 - DB7:

 

These are bidirectional data bus lines. The data and command words to and from the CPU are transferred on these lines.

 

CLK:

 

This is a clock input used to generate internal timings required by 8279.


RESET:

 

This pin is used to reset 8279. A high on this line resets 8279. After resetting 8279, its in sixteen 8-bit display, left entry encoded scan, 2-key lock out mode. The clock prescaler is set to 31.

 

CS chip select:

 

A low on this line enables 8279 for normal read or write operations. Otherwise this pin should be high.

 

Ao:

A high on the Ao line indicates the transfer of a command or status information. A low on this line indicates the transfer of data. This is used to select one of the internal registers of 8279.

 

RD, WR:

 

(Input/Output) READ/WRITE input pins enable the data buffer to receive or send data over the data bus.

 

IRQ:

 

This interrupt output line goes high when there is data in the FIFO sensor RAM. The interrupt line goes low with each FIFO RAM read operation. However, if the FIFO RAM further contains any Key-code entry to be read by the CPU, this pin again goes high to generate an interrupt to the CPU.

 

Vss, Vcc:

These are the ground and power supply lines for the circuit.

 

SL0-SL3 – Scan Lines:

 

These lines are used to scan the keyboard matrix and display digits. These lines can be programmed as encoded or decoded, using the mode control register.

 

RL0-RL7 – Return Lines:

 

These are the input lines which are connected to one terminal of keys, while the other terminal of the keys are connected to the decoded scan lines. These are normally high, but pulled low when a key is pressed.

 

 

SHIFT:

 

The status of the Shift input line is stored along with each key code in FIFO in the scanned keyboard mode. Till it is pulled low with a key closure it is pulled up internally to keep it high.

 

CNTL/STB-CONTROL/STROBED I/P Mode:

 

In the Keyboard mode, this line is used as a control input and stored in FIFO on a key closure. The line is a strobe line that enters the data into FIFO RAM, in the strobed input mode. It has an internal pull up. The line is pulled down with a Key closure.

BD – Blank Display:

 

This output pin is used to blank the display during digit switching or by a blanking command.

 

OUTA0 – OUTA3 and OUTB0 – OUTB3:

 

These are the output ports for two 16x4 (or one 16 x 8) internal display refresh registers. The data from these lines is synchronized with the scan lines to scan the display and keyboard. The two 4-bit ports may also be used as one 8-bit port.

 

Modes of Operation of 8279

The Modes of operation of 8279 are

 

i. Input (Keyboard) modes

ii. Output (Display) modes

 

Input (Keyboard) modes:

8279 provides three input modes, they are:

 

1. Scanned Keyboard Mode:

 

This mode allows a key matrix to be interfaced using either encoded or decoded scans. In the encoded scan, an 8 x 8 keyboard or in decoded scan , a 4 x 8 Keyboard can be interfaced. The code of key pressed with SHIFT and CONTROL status is stored into the

FIFO RAM.

 

2. Scanned Sensor Matrix:

 

In this mode, a sensor array can be interfaced with 8279 using either encoder or decoder scans. With encoder scan 8 x 8 sensor matrix or with decoder scan 4 x 8 sensor matrix can be interfaced. The sensor codes are stored in the CPU addressable sensor RAM.

 

3. Strobed Input:

 

In this mode, if the control line goes low, the data on return lines, is stored in the FIFO byte by byte.

 

Output (Display) Modes:

8279 provides two output modes for selecting the display options.

 

1. Display Scan:

 

In this mode, 8279 provides 8 or 16 character multiplexed displays those can be organized as dual 4-bit or single 8-bit display units.

 

2. Display Entry:

The Display data is entered for display either from the right side or from the left side.

 

Details of Modes of Operation Keyboard Modes

 

1. Scanned Keyboard Mode with 2 Key Lockout

 

In this mode of operation, when a key is pressed, a debounce logic comes into operation. The Key code of the identified key is entered into the FIFO with SHIFT and CNTL status, provided the FIFO is not full.

 

2. Scanned Keyboard with N-key Rollover

 

In this mode, each key depression is treated independently. When a key is pressed, the debounce circuit waits for 2 keyboard scans and then checks whether the key is still depressed. If it is still depressed, the code is entered in FIFO RAM. Any number of keys can be pressed simultaneously and recognized in the order, the Keyboard scan record them.

 

3. Scanned Keyboard Special Error Mode

This mode is valid only under the N-Key rollover mode. This mode is programmed using end interrupt/error mode set command. If during a single debounce period (two Keyboard scan) two keys are found pressed, this is considered a simultaneous depression and an error flag is set. This flag, if set, prevents further writing in FIFO but allows generation of further interrupts to the CPU for FIFO read.

 

3. Sensor Matrix Mode

 

In the Sensor Matrix mode, the debounce logic is inhibited the 8-byte memory matrix. The status of the sensor switch matrix is fed directly to sensor RAM matrix Thus the sensor RAM bits contains the row-wise and column-wise status of the sensors in the sensor matrix. 8

 

Display Modes

 

There are various options of data display The first one is known as left entry mode or type writer mode. Since in a type writer the first character typed appears at the left-most position, while the subsequent characters appears successively to the right of the first one. The other display format is known as right entry mode, or calculator mode, since the calculator the first character entered appears to the right-most position and this character is shifted one position left when the next character is entered.

 

1. Left Entry Mode

 

In the Left entry mode, the data is entered from the left side of the display unit. Address 0 of the display RAM contains the leftmost display character and address 15 of the RAM contains the rightmost display character.

 

2. Right Entry Mode

 

In the right entry mode, the first entry to be displayed is entered on the rightmost display. The next entry is also placed in the right most display but after the previous display is shifted left by one display position.

 

ü Command Words of 8279

 

All the Command words or status words are written or read with Ao = 1 and CS = 0 to or from 8279.

 

a. Keyboard Display mode set

 

The format of the command word to select different modes of operation of 8279 is given below with its bit definitions.

 

b. Programmable Clock

 

The clock for operation of 8279 is obtained by dividing the external clock input signal by a programmable constant called prescaler.

 

PPPPP is a 5-bit binary constant. The input frequency is divided by a decimal constant ranging from 2 to 31, decided by the bits of an internal prescalar, PPPPP.

 

c. Read FIFO/Sensor RAM

 

The format of this command is given as shown below X - don’t care

AI - Auto increment flag

AAA - Address pointer to 8 bit FIFO RAM

 

This word is written to set up 8279 for reading FIFO/Sensor RAM. In scanned keyboard mode, AI and AAA bits are of no use. The 8279 will automatically drive data bus for each subsequent read, in the same sequence, in which the data was entered.

 

d. Read Display RAM

 

This command enables a programmer to read the display RAM data The CPU writes this command word to 8279 to prepare it for display RAM read operation. AI is auto incremented flag and AAAA, the 4-bit address, points to the 16-byte display RAM that is to be read. If AI = 1, the address will be automatically, incremented after each read or write to the display RAM.

 

e. Write Display RAM

The format of this command is given as shown below

 

AI - Auto increment flag

AAAA - 4-bit address for 16-bit display RAM to be written

 

Other details of this command are similar to the ‘Read Display RAM Command.

 

f. Display Write Inhibit/Blanking

 

The IW (Inhibit write flag) bits are used to mask the individual nibble Here Do and D2 corresponds to OUTBo – OUTB3 while D1 and D3 corresponds to OUTAo-OUTA3 for blanking and masking respectively.

 

g. Clear Display RAM

The CD2, CD1, CDo is a selectable blanking code to clear all the rows of the display RAM as given below. The characters A and B represents the output nibbles.

CD CD1 CDo

 

1 0 x All Zeros (x don’t care) AB = 00

 

1 1 0 A3-Ao = 2(0010) and B3-Bo = 00(0000) 1 1 1 All ones (AB = FF), i.e. clear RAM

Here, CA represents clear All and CF represents Clear FIFO RAM

 

End Interrupt/Error Mode Set

 

For the sensor matrix mode, this command lowers the IRQ line and enables further writing into the RAM. Otherwise, if a charge in sensor value is detected, IRQ goes high that inhibits writing in the sensor RAM.

 

Key-code and status Data Formats

 

This briefly describes the formats of the Key-code/Sensor data in their respective modes of operation and the FIFO Status Word formats of 8279.

 

Key-code Data Formats:

 

After a valid Key closure, the key code is entered as a byte code into the FIFO RAM, in the following format, in scanned keyboard mode. The Keycode format contains 3-bit contents of the internal row counter, 3-bit contents of the column counter and status of the SHIFT and CNTL Keys The data format of the Keycode in scanned keyboard mode is given below. In the sensor matrix mode, the data from the return lines is directly entered into an appropriate row of sensor RAM, that identifies the row of the sensor that changes its status. The SHIFT and CNTL Keys are ignored in this mode. RL bits represent the return lines.

 

Rn represents the sensor RAM row number that is equal to the row number of the sensor array in which the status change was detected. Data Format of the sensor code in sensor matrix mode

 

FIFO Status Word:

 

The FIFO status word is used in keyboard and strobed input mode to indicate the error. Overrun error occurs, when an already full FIFO is attempted an entry, Under run error occurs when an empty FIFO read is attempted. FIFO status word also has a bit to show the unavailability of FIFO RAM because of the ongoing clearing operation.

 

In sensor matrix mode, a bit is reserved to show that at least one sensor closure indication is stored in the RAM, The S/E bit shows the simultaneous multiple closure error in special error mode. In sensor matrix mode, a bit is reserved to show that at least one sensor closure indication is stored in the RAM, The S/E bit shows the simultaneous multiple closure error in special error mode.

 

Interfacing and Programming 8279

Problem:

 

Interface keyboard and display controller 8279 with 8086 at address 0080H. Write an ALP to set up 8279 in scanned keyboard mode with encoded scan, N-Key rollover mode.

 

Use a 16 character display in right entry display format. Then clear the display RAM with zeros. Read the FIFO for key closure. If any key is closed, store it’s code to register CL.

 

Then write the byte 55 to all the displays, and return to DOS. The clock input to 8279 is 2MHz, operate it at 100KHz.

 

Solution:

_ The 8279 is interfaced with lower byte of the data bus, i.e. Do-D7 . Hence the Ao input of 8279 is connected with address lineA1.

 

_ The data register of 8279 is to be addressed as 0080H, i.e.Ao=0.

 

_ For addressing the command or status word Ao input of 8279 should be 1. _ The next step is to write all the required command words for this problem.

Keyboard/Display Mode Set CW:

 

This command byte sets the 8279 in 16-character right entry and encoded scan N-Key rollover mode.


Program clock selection:

 

The clock input to 8279 is 2MHz, but the operating frequency is to be 100KHz, i.e. the clock input is to be divided by 20 (10100). Thus the prescalar value is 10100 and trhe command byte is set as given.


Clear Display RAM:

This command clears the display RAM with the programmable blanking code.


Read FIFO:

This command byte enables the programmer to read a key code from the FIFO RAM


Write Display RAM:

 

This command enables the programmer to write the addressed display locations of the RAM as presented below.



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