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Chapter: 11th Computer Applications : Chapter 10 : HTML - Structural Tags

Writing HTML document

HTML is a markup language. Writing in a markup language is very simple, directly you start the text of your web document and add special tags around words and paragraphs.

Writing HTML document


HTML is a markup language. Writing in a markup language is very simple, directly you start the text of your web document and add special tags around words and paragraphs. The tags are coded by HTML commands or keywords that indicate how web browser should format and display the content.

HTML is made up of tags and its attributes. Tags are known as elements of HTML. Additional information such as colour, alignment etc., can be included with an HTML tag is known as attribute. Attributes are used to improve the appearance of an HTML document. You cannot create your own tags to create a new style or feature.

All HTML tags should be specified within angle brackets (< >). For example, <HTML> is a tag. HTML is not case sensitive that means you can write an HTML tag in lower case or in upper case (Small letter or Capital letter). Browser treats both of them in the same manner. For example, you can write <HTML> as <html>; both are same.


HTML Document Structure

An HTML document contains the text of the page itself and HTML tags, which defined the structure and appearance of the document. It also contains hyperlinks to other pages or to include multimedia elements such as audio, video, animations etc. Entire HTML document is bounded within a pair of <html> and </html> tags.


All HTML documents should follow this general format



        <title> My First Web Page </title>



        This is my First Web Page



HTML tags are generally have an opening and closing tag surrounding the text they affect. Opening tag turn-on a feature such as heading, bold, center etc., and closing tag turn-off its features. Opening and closing tags are the same name, but closing tag name preceded by a slash ( / ). For example, <html> is an opening tag, </html> is a closing tab.

Every web document has two sections viz. Heading Section and Body Section. The heading section is used to show the title of a webpage in title bar or tab heading in browser. The head section should begins with <head> tag and end with </head> tag. The tag <title> is used to specify the title of the webpage.

The body section is used to display the main content on the browser window. The body section should defined within <body> and </body> tags. Whatever the text you specify between these tags will display on the browser window. 


Structural Tags of HTML:


<html>, <head>, <title> and <body> these four tags are known as structural tags. These tags are basic essential elements to construct a web page.


Table: 10.1


HTML Writing Tools


To get started writing HTML, there is no need of web server, web hosting or even internet connection. You can write, test and link web pages without a network. To create and testing a HTML document i.e. web page need an application (text editor) to write HTML code and a browser to view them. Using a simple text editor (Notepad for Windows or getit for Linux) is a good way to learn HTML coding.


Creating a Webpage

Step 1: Open a text editor

Windows7 : Start All Programs Accessories Notepad

Linux : Applications Accessories Text Editor

Step 2: In the appearing Note pad / Text Editor, type the HTML document.

(Refer Figure 10.2)

code Step 3: Save the file as HTML

         Click File Save (or) Press Ctrl + S

         Save as dialog box appears as shown in the Figure 10.3

         In “File Name” text box, type a file name with .htm or .html extension.

         Select “All Files” from “Save as type” list box.

         Click “Save” button.


Viewing Webpage in a Browser:

Step 1: Open a Browser (Internet Explorer / Mozilla Firefox or any)

Step 2: Click File Open File (or) Press Ctrl + O

If menu bar is not visible in your browser refer Figure 10.4

Step 3: From the “Open” dialog box, browse the folder in which the HTML document is saved. Choose the File name and click “Open” button. (Refer Figure 10.5)

Now, your web page is displayed in the browser. (Refer Figure 10.6)


Viewing Source file

Source file is an HTML document, what you actually type in text editor (Notepad or getit). You can view your original source file in the browser. The following steps are to be followed to view a source file.

         Right click on the browser

         Select View Page Source (Firefox and Chrome) / View Source (Internet Explorer) or Press Ctrl + U (all browser)

         Source file will be displayed.

         In Internet Explorer, View Source is also used to open source file.

Remember that, you cannot edit the source file opened using the methods you learnt above.


Edit and Reload the source file

Source file can be edit only through the text editor. So, to edit the source file, open the source file with a text editor. When you edit a source file, no need to close browser in which displaying the HTML document. The following steps are to be followed to open a source file.

         Go to the folder in which your source files are located.

         According to you default browser, your source file icon is displayed. (Refer Figure 10.7)

         Right click on the source file that you want to edit

         From the pop-up menu, select Open With Notepad

         Source file will be opened in text editor

         Make the changes and save the file using File Save or Ctrl + S.


Reload / Refresh the changes:

·        After modify and save the source file, minimize your source file.

·        Go to the browser.

·        Click Refresh (Internet Explorer) / Reload Current Page (Firefox) / Reload this page (Chrome) icons on the address bar.

·        Press Ctrl + R or F5 will be used to refresh / reload the modifications.


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