the signs and causes of perioperative bronchospasm?
Bronchospasm is recognized by expiratory
wheezing, a high-pitched noise accompanied by a prolonged expiratory time.
Tachypnea and dyspnea are usually present in the awake patient. Increased
airway resistance manifests as high peak inspiratory pressures and an
expiratory flow that does not return to zero at end-expiration, exposing the
patient to barotrauma, auto-PEEP and stacking of mechanical breaths.
Not all perioperative bronchospasm is asthma!
Important perioperative precipitants of wheezing are listed in Table 80.4.