Various standards in graphics programming
The following international organizations involved to develop the graphics standards:
· ACM ( Association for Computer Machinery )
· ANSI ( American National Standards Institute )
· ISO ( International Standards Organization )
· GIN ( German Standards Institute )
Fig.5.2. Graphics Standards in Graphics Programming
As a result of these international organization efforts, various standard functions at various levels of the graphics system developed. These are:
1. IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) enables an exchange of model data basis among CAD system.
2. DXF (Drawing / Data Exchange Format) file format was meant to provide an exact representation of the data in the standard CAD file format.
3. 3. STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data) can be used to exchange data between CAD, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) , Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) , product data management/enterprise data modeling (PDES) and other CAx systems.
4. CALS ( Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support) is an US Department of Defense initiative with the aim of applying computer technology in Logistic support.
5. GKS (Graphics Kernel System) provides a set of drawing features for two-dimensional vector graphics suitable for charting and similar duties.
6. PHIGS ( Programmer’sHierarchical Interactive Graphic System) The PHIGS standard defines a set of functions and data structures to be used by a programmer to manipulate and display 3-D graphical objects.
7. VDI (Virtual Device Interface) lies between GKS or PHIGS and the device driver code. VDI is now called CGI (Computer Graphics Interface).
8. VDM (Virtual Device Metafile) can be stored or transmitted from graphics device to another. VDM is now called CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile).
9. NAPLPS (North American Presentation- Level Protocol Syntax) describes text and graphics in the form of sequences of bytes in ASCII code.