This is a serious disease caused by the typhoid bacillus. The bacteria are swallowed with contaminated food and water. The bacteria flourish in the Payers patches (Lymphoid tissue) of small intestine where ulceration develops. The incubation period is 1 to 3 weeks.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. High fever, which continues for more than a week.
2. Coated tongue
3. Headache and malaise
4. A comparatively slow pulse (bradycardia) (Pulse rate is usually faster with other types of fever)
5. constipation or diarrhea .
6. The abdomen may become swollen and tender,
7. Rashes in the abdomen
1. Widal test
2. Blood culture
3. Presence of typhoid bacilli in the stools.
Treatment and nursing care:
1. Bed rest
2. Capsule Chloromphenical will be given as per prescription.
3. Soft nutritious food (non-residual diet)
4. Plenty of fluids.
5. Careful observation of vital signs,
6. Watch for complications such as internal hemorrhage or intestinal perforation.
7. Before discharge, the stool test must be negative; otherwise the patient will be a carrier of the disease.
Preventive and control measures:
1. Early identification and proper treatment
2. Isolate the patient,
3. Disinfect stools, urine and soiled articles.
4. Immunise the contact persons with typhoid vaccine.
5. Make sure about safe drinking water, safe food especially
6. milk and milk products and control of flies