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# Train Resistance Due to Friction

Resistance due to friction is the resistance offered by the friction between the internal parts of locomotives and wagons as well as between the metal surface of the rail and the wheel to a train moving at a constant speed.

Various forces offer resistance to the movement of a train on the track. These resistances may be a result of the movement of the various parts of the locomotives as well as the friction between them, the irregularities in the track profile, or the atmospheric resistance to a train moving at great speed. The tractive power of a locomotive should be adequate enough to overcome these resistances and haul the train at a specified speed.

Resistance Due to Friction

Resistance due to friction is the resistance offered by the friction between the internal parts of locomotives and wagons as well as between the metal surface of the rail and the wheel to a train moving at a constant speed. This resistance is independent of speed and can be further broken down into the following parts.

Journal friction This is dependent on the type of bearing, the lubricant used, the temperature and condition of the bearing, etc. In the case of roll bearings, it varies from 0.5 to 1.0 kg per tonne.

Internal resistance This resistance is consequential to the movement of the various parts of the locomotive and wagons.

Rolling resistance This occurs due to rail-wheel interaction on account of the movement of steel wheels on a steel rail. The total frictional resistance is given by the empirical formula

R1 = 0.0016W (25.1) where R1 is the frictional resistance independent of speed and W is the weight of the train in tonnes.

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