Trade and Traders in South India historial perspective
Southern Indian trade guilds were formed by merchants in order to organize and expand their trading activities. Trade guilds become channels through which Indian culture was exported to other lands.
In the year 1053 AD (CE) the Kalinga traders (Modern Odisha) brought red colored stone decorative objects for trade and also cotton textile to Southeast Asia at an early date.
This was due to the trading activities of the various European companies which came to India during this period. The discovery of a new all-sea route from Europe to India Via cape of Good Hope by Vasco do Gama had for reaching repercussions on the civilized world.
The Portuguese under the leadership of Vasco da Gama landed at Calicut on May, 1498. Profits of goods brought by Vasco do Gama to Portugal were to 60 times cost of the entire expedition to India. The second trip of Vasco da Gama in 1502 led to the establishment of trading station at Calicut Cochin and Cannanore. Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India.
Dutch undertook several voyages from 1596 and formed the Dutch East India company (VOC) I 1602. In 1605, Admiral van der Hagen established Dutch Factory at Masulipatnam and Pettapoli (Nizamapatanam), Devanampatinam. In 1610, upon negotiating with the king of Chandragiri, found another facatory at Pulicut. Other commodities exported by the Dutch were indigo, and Bengal raw silk. Pulicut was the headquarters of the Dutch in India.
On 31st December, 1600, Queen Elizabeth granted charter to The East India Company. On the south-eastern coast, the English established at Masulipatnam in 1611 and near Pulical in 1626. The Sultan of Golconda granted the English the “Golden Fireman” in 1632 by which they were allowed to trade freely in their “Kingdom Ports”. In 1639, built a fortified factory in Madras which known as Fort St.George, which soon displaced Masulipatnam as headquarters of the English settlement on the coromandel coast.
The Danes formed an East India company and arrive in India in 1616. The Danish settlements were established at Tranguebar ( in Tamil nadu) in 1620 which was the headquarters of Danes in India. They failed to strengthen themselves, in India and in 1845 were forced to sell all their India settlements to the British.
The first French factory in India was established in 1668 by obtaining permission from the Sultan of Golconda. In 1693, the Dutch captured Pondicherry but was handed back to the French. In 1701, Pondicherry was the headquarters of the French.