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Chapter: User Interface Design : Multimedia

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The wording of the interface and its screens is the basic form of communication with the user.

Text for web pages


The wording of the interface and its screens is the basic form of communication with the user.


Clear and meaningfully crafted words, messages, and text lead to greatly enhanced system usability and minimize user confusion that leads to errors and possibly even system rejection.


Words, Sentences, Messages, and Text


Like all aspects of interface design, knowing the user is the first step in choosing the proper words and creating acceptable messages and text.



·     Do not use:

o   Jargon, words, or terms:

§  Unique to the computer profession.

§  With different meanings outside of the computer profession.

§  Made up to describe special functions or conditions.

·        Abbreviations or acronyms.

o   Unless the abbreviation or acronym is as familiar as a full word or phrase.

o   Word contractions, suffixes, and prefixes.

·     Use:

o   Short, familiar words.

o   Standard alphabetic characters.

o   Complete words.

o   Positive terms.

o   Simple action words; avoid noun strings.

o   The “more” dimension when comparing.

o   Consistent words.

·     Do not:

o   Stack words.


o   Hyphenate words.

o   Include punctuation for abbreviations, mnemonics, and acronyms.

Sentences and Messages


Sentences and messages must be:

-   Brief and simple.

-   Directly and immediately usable.

-   An affirmative statement.

-   In an active voice.

-   —In the temporal sequence of events.

-   Structured so that the main topic is near the beginning.

-   Of parallel construction.

Sentences and messages must be of the proper tone:

-   Nonauthoritarian: Imply that the system is awaiting the user’s direction, not that the system is directing the user. For example, phrase a message as “Ready for


-   the next command,” not “Enter the next command.”

-   Nonthreatening: errors are often the result of a failure to understand, mistakes, or trial-and-error behavior, the user may feel confused, inadequate, or anxious. Blaming the user for problems can heighten anxiety, making error correction


-   more difficult and increasing the chance of more errors. Therefore, harsh words like “illegal,” “bad,” or “fatal” should be avoided.


-   Nonanthropomorphic: The best advice at this moment is do not give a human personality to a machine. Imply that the system is awaiting the user’s direction, not vice versa. Say, for example, “What do you need?” not “How can I help you?”


-   Nonpatronizing: Patronizing messages can be embarrassing. “Very good, you did it right” may thrill a fourth-grader, but would be somewhat less than thrilling

-   to an adult.

-   Nonpunishing: messages should remain factual and informative, and should not be punishable. Punishment is never a desirable way to force a change in behavior, especially among adults.


-   Cautious in the use of humor: Humor is a transitory and changeable thing. What is funny today may not be funny tomorrow, and what is funny to some may not be to others.




Messages are communications provided on the screen to the screen viewer.

Screen messages fall into two broad categories: system and instructional.


System messages are generated by the system to keep the user informed of the system’s state and activities.


Instructional messages, sometimes referred to as prompting messages, are messages that tell the user how to work with, or complete, the screen displayed.


System messages.


System messages are of several types, each reflecting a different purpose. Common message types are:


Status messages. A status message is used for providing information concerning the progress of a lengthy operation.



Informational messages. Informational messages, also called notification messages, provide information about the state of the system when it is not immediately obvious to the user.


Warning messages. Warning messages call attention to a situation that may be undesirable. They are usually identified by an “!” icon to the left of the message.


Critical messages. Critical messages, sometimes called action messages, call attention to conditions that require a user action before the system can proceed. A message describing an erroneous situation is usually presented as a critical message.


Question messages. Question messages are another kind of message type sometimes seen. A question message asks a question and offers a choice of options for selection. It is designated by a “?” icon preceding the message text.


Writing Message Box Text


Title bar:

-   Clearly identify the source of the message.

o   The name of the object to which it refers.

o   The name of the application to which it refers.


-   Do not include an indication of message type.

-   Use mixed case in the headline style.

Message box:

-   Provide a clear and concise description of the condition causing the message box to be displayed.

·        Use complete sentences with ending punctuation.

·        State the problem, its probable cause (if known), and what the user can

·        do about it.

·        Avoid contractions.

·        Avoid technical jargon and system-oriented information.

·        Provide only as much background information as necessary for the

·        message to be understood.


·        Show only one message box about the cause of condition in a single

·        message.

·        Make the solution an option offered in the message.

·        Avoid multistep solutions.

·        Use consistent words and phrasing for similar situations.

·        Use the word “please” conservatively.

-   Do not exceed two or three lines.

-   Include the relevant icon identifying the type of message to the left of the text.

-   Center the message text in window.


Message Box Controls


Command buttons:

·        If a message requires no choices to be made but only acknowledgment:

o  Include an OK button.


If a message requires a choice be made, provide a command button for each



·        Include OK and Cancel buttons only when the user has the option of continuing or stopping the action.

·        Include Yes and No buttons when the user must decide how to continue.

·        If these choices are too ambiguous, label the command buttons with the names of specific actions.

If a message allows initiation of an action to correct the situation described:

·        Include a properly labeled button initiating the corrective action.


If a message describes an interrupted process whose state cannot be restored:

·        Provide a Stop button.


If a message offers an opportunity to cancel a process as well as to perform or not perform an action:


·        Provide a Cancel button.


·        If more details about a message topic must be presented:

·        Provide a Help button.


·        Designate the most frequent or least destructive option as the default.

·        Display a message box only when the window of an application is active.

·        Display only one message box for a specific condition.

Close box:

·        Enable the title bar Close box only if the message includes a Cancel button.


Message Location


Use the message line for messages that must not interfere with screen information.


Pop-up windows may be used for all kinds of messages, if available.

Pop-up windows should always be used for critical messages.


Other Message Considerations


Abbreviated, more concise versions of messages should be available.

Something that must be remembered should be at the beginning of the text.

Do not include code numbers with messages.


Instructional Messages


Provide instructional information at the depth of detail needed by the user.

Locate it at strategic positions on the screen.

Display it in a manner that visually differentiates it from other screen elements.


In writing, follow all relevant writing guidelines for words, sentences, and messages.




Text, by a very general definition, is any textual element that appears on a screen, including field captions, headings, words, sentences, messages, and instructions.


Presenting Text



o   Use plain and simple fonts.


o   Choose a minimum point size of 12 to 14.

o   Use proportional fonts.


o   Include no more than 40 to 60 characters on each line.

o  A double column of 30 to 35 characters separated by five spaces is also

o   acceptable.

o   Do not right-justify.

o   Do not hyphenate words.


o   Use headings to introduce a new topic.

o   Separate paragraphs by at least one blank line.

o   Start a fresh topic on a new page.

o   Use lists to present facts.

o   Emphasize important things by:

o   Positioning.

o   Boxes.

o   Bold typefaces.

o   Indented margins.


o   Use paging (not scrolling).

o   Provide a screen design philosophy consistent with other parts of the system.


Writing Text


Sentences and paragraphs:

o   Use short sentences composed of familiar, personal words.

o  Cut the excess words.

o  Try to keep the number of words in a sentence to 20 or less.


o   Cut the number of sentences.

o   Use separate sentences for separate ideas.

o   Keep the paragraphs short.

o   Restrict a paragraph to only one idea.


o   Use the active writing style.


o   Use the personal writing style, if appropriate.

o   Write as you talk.

o   Use subjective opinion.

o   Use specific examples.

o   Read it out loud.

Window Title


All windows must have a title located in a centered position at the top.

Exception: Windows containing messages.


Clearly and concisely describe the purpose of the window.

Spell it out fully using an uppercase or mixed-case font.

If title truncation is necessary, truncate it from right to left.


If presented above a menu bar, display it with a background that contrasts with the bar.




Establish conventions for referring to:

o   Individual keyboard keys.


o   Keys to be pressed at the same time.

o   Field captions.

o   Names supplied by users or defined by the system.

o   Commands and actions.


Sequence Control Guidance


Consider providing a guidance message telling how to continue at points in the dialog when:


o   A decision must be made.


o   A response needs to be made to continue.


Consider indicating what control options exist at points in the dialog where several alternatives may be available.


Permit these prompts to be turned on or off by the user


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