TEACHING OF PATIENTS
The choice of what to teach the patient is based on:
What we know about the patient;
information gained by study of the chart, doctor's comments, conversation with
patient' s physical conditions: even seriously ill patients learn from your
attitude. Example Cleanliness, need for emergency, etc.
The interest of the patient: at
first most likely to be interested in his disease - what he needs to know to
get well, to live with residual condition to prevent relapse and to help others
to avoid it.
Secondary interests: knowledge of
use to his family or general interest.
Patient' s intelligence: some are
able to learn on a higher level than others.
Probable ability to apply teaching.
Facts for immediate use - not
something vague for future.
Material related to local customs.
Nurse's knowledge : thorough
Consultation with notes, texts and
senior staff, so that the nurse thoroughly understands the material herself.
She should not try to teach in advance of her own knowledge.
How to teach the patient:
1. By Quoting Example:
The nurse's personal appearance, the conscience with which
she carries out her work, his/her attention to sanitation and health rules and
other good health practices will be observed and followed by the patients.
2. By telling:
The nurse must establish a good
relationship for teaching between patient and him/her and must gain the
patient's confidence. She/he should use simple language, avoiding foreign or
technical words, and teach only one or two facts at a time, choosing the most
important. Stress should be laid on positive action, especially on the DO' s rather than on the
look is worth a thousand words".
Demonstrate to the patient by actually doing.
Show the article you are talking about, the kind he would
use at home. Let him touch it or hold it.
Explain what you are doing and why.
possible let the patient demonstrate in return.
pictures, flash-cards, books, sample articles or models,
4. By reviewing:
Ask the patient to tell you what you
have taught, both at the end of the conversation and the next day.
Make any corrections or additions if necessary. Allow the
patient to tell facts that are right.
5. By approving:
praise and recognition for learning of making improvements.
TEACHING SMALL GROUPS
Plan materials: Gather illustrative material know subject thoroughly and have objective in
teaching, Consult senior nurses, staff and text books.
Select time in
advance, notify all concerned. Select
people with common
interest. Keep Group small. Sit
interest with pictures, models or leading
questions. Teach subject in simple language for about 5 minutes. Use visual
aids, black board, pictures, sample etc. Look at each person while talking.
Permit and encourage questions and comments. Keep to the subject but do not
stifle other questions - refer to them another time.
Let one of the groups participates as a module, but avoid
Practical demonstrations may be given by each group.
playing: acting out an imaginary scene, may
be used occasionally.
Try to leave behind something definite to do with the group.
Review and sum up the teaching at the end of the class.
Teaching Mass: refers
to educating large groups of people
by using the mass media. There is no two-way communication and the results are
not very encouraging but useful, especially when health information has to be
given to the community, e.g. drinking of boiled water during
floods, family planning services etc.
COMMONLY USED ARE: 1. Group Discussion:
Symposium b) Panel discussion.
It is a two-way communication. People learn by exchanging
their view and experience. Small groups of 8 to 12 are more effective and
active, Participation of member is encouraged.
2. Lecture method:
It is one-way method of teaching but it can be made more
meaningful by use of audio-visual aids and discussions.
3. Questions and answers method (Socratic method):
This method is suitable both for individuals and groups.
Learning takes place through questions and answers.
4. Demonstration method:
The purpose of demonstration is to show how to do something.
Demonstration must be done using simple equipment available and familiar to the
This is based on the assumption that many values in a given
situation cannot be expressed in words, and the communication can be made more
effective if the situation is dramatized by the group.
requires activity and gives a sense of accomplishment. Subjects are organised into units that can
be dealt with by a student or learner group.
Project assignment is adaptable to
community health in which the learner works together in groups.
Workshop and conference - adopted to professional groups, teachers etc. The group works together to explore all
aspects of a subject and to reach specific goals.
aids play an important role in health education, They can be classified into
three groups - purely auditory aids, purely visual and a combination of both
auditory and visual aids.
or materials in health education can be used for different purposes and for
different groups of people. Learning and understanding seems to result when
more senses, such as, touch, sight, and hearing are reached by the media.
used properly they create interest and motivate people to learn. Learning is
made more permanent because these aids supply a concrete basis for learning
rather than abstract thinking.
For Mass media
picture : Useful only to
2. Film strips : large number
of people in
3. Exhibition : order to disseminate
4. Radio : information and also
5. Television : propaganda.
b. Other aids
graph or Khadigraph
The cut out pictures in bright
colours should be pasted on to sand paper or on to some rough material and the
same are fixed on to flannel boards while teaching.
Practice before you teach for, if done well, it holds the
attention of the learners. The theme of story should be selected in advance and
the figures kept in order to be used without delay.
10. Flash cards:
They are pictures arranged in sequence, which illustrate a
story. Support the cards on your chest wall and practice in order to make your
effective. Use a pointer so that the picture is not covered
by your hand.
Posters should be colourful to catch the eye and convey the
message clearly. Simple language and short sentences should be used. If used in
the clinic, outpatients department or health centers, they should be changed
frequently. When possible explain the message to the learners and use them to
supplement your health teaching.
12. Suspense charts:
Each section of the chart is covered and is exposed one by
one to reveal the story or ideas without exposing the whole chart at a time.
Puppets are dolls made by hand and a story can be narrated
using them. It is a popular teaching aid to health teaching, both children and
adults enjoy seeing puppet shows.
AND USES OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS Uses of printed teaching material
The following criteria are guides for the selection of the
books and other printed teaching materials. How each applies in a given
instance depends upon the specific teaching objectives, which have been set up
to meet particular needs.
Criteria for selecting audio visual
The facts should be scientifically
Needed materials should be present
All the information should be
It should cover the entire
the ideas should be essential, significant and important to clear