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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Teaching Methods and Guideline to the patient

The nurse's personal appearance, the conscience with which she carries out her work, his/her attention to sanitation and health rules and other good health practices will be observed and followed by the patients.



The choice of what to teach the patient is based on:


            What we know about the patient; information gained by study of the chart, doctor's comments, conversation with the patient.


2) The patient' s physical conditions: even seriously ill patients learn from your attitude. Example Cleanliness, need for emergency, etc.


            The interest of the patient: at first most likely to be interested in his disease - what he needs to know to get well, to live with residual condition to prevent relapse and to help others to avoid it.


            Secondary interests: knowledge of use to his family or general interest.

            Patient' s intelligence: some are able to learn on a higher level than others.


            Probable ability to apply teaching.


            Facts for immediate use - not something vague for future.


            Material related to local customs.


            Nurse's knowledge : thorough preparation.


            Consultation with notes, texts and senior staff, so that the nurse thoroughly understands the material herself. She should not try to teach in advance of her own knowledge.


How to teach the patient: 

1. By Quoting Example:


The nurse's personal appearance, the conscience with which she carries out her work, his/her attention to sanitation and health rules and other good health practices will be observed and followed by the patients.


2.  By telling:


The nurse must establish a good relationship for teaching between patient and him/her and must gain the patient's confidence. She/he should use simple language, avoiding foreign or technical words, and teach only one or two facts at a time, choosing the most important. Stress should be laid on positive action, especially on the DO' s rather than on the


DON'T' s.


              By showing:


"One look is worth a thousand words".


Demonstrate to the patient by actually doing.


Show the article you are talking about, the kind he would use at home. Let him touch it or hold it.


Explain what you are doing and why.


When possible let the patient demonstrate in return.


Use pictures, flash-cards, books, sample articles or models,

4.  By reviewing:


"Repetition teaches"


Ask the patient to tell you what you have taught, both at the end of the conversation and the next day.

Make any corrections or additions if necessary. Allow the patient to tell facts that are right.

5.  By approving:


Give praise and recognition for learning of making improvements.




Plan materials: Gather illustrative material know subject thoroughly and have objective in teaching, Consult senior nurses, staff and text books.

 Plan  groups:  Select    time  in  advance,  notify  all concerned.  Select  people          with  common  interest.  Keep Group small. Sit in circle.

            Method: Gain interest with pictures, models or leading questions. Teach subject in simple language for about 5 minutes. Use visual aids, black board, pictures, sample etc. Look at each person while talking. Permit and encourage questions and comments. Keep to the subject but do not stifle other questions - refer to them another time.


Let one of the groups participates as a module, but avoid possible embarrassment.


Practical demonstrations may be given by each group.


Role playing: acting out an imaginary scene, may be used occasionally.


Try to leave behind something definite to do with the group.


Review and sum up the teaching at the end of the class.


            Teaching Mass: refers to educating large groups of people by using the mass media. There is no two-way communication and the results are not very encouraging but useful, especially when health information has to be

given to the community, e.g. drinking of boiled water during floods, family planning services etc.




(a) Symposium    b) Panel discussion.


It is a two-way communication. People learn by exchanging their view and experience. Small groups of 8 to 12 are more effective and active, Participation of member is encouraged.


2Lecture method:


It is one-way method of teaching but it can be made more meaningful by use of audio-visual aids and discussions.


3Questions and answers method (Socratic method):


This method is suitable both for individuals and groups. Learning takes place through questions and answers.


4Demonstration method:


The purpose of demonstration is to show how to do something. Demonstration must be done using simple equipment available and familiar to the learner (patient).


            Role play:


This is based on the assumption that many values in a given situation cannot be expressed in words, and the communication can be made more effective if the situation is dramatized by the group.


            Project method:


v It requires activity and gives a sense of accomplishment. Subjects are organised into units that can be dealt with by a student or learner group.


            Project assignment is adaptable to community health in which the learner works together in groups.


Workshop and conference - adopted to professional groups, teachers etc. The group works together to explore all aspects of a subject and to reach specific goals.



Audiovisual aids play an important role in health education, They can be classified into three groups - purely auditory aids, purely visual and a combination of both auditory and visual aids.

Media or materials in health education can be used for different purposes and for different groups of people. Learning and understanding seems to result when more senses, such as, touch, sight, and hearing are reached by the media.

If used properly they create interest and motivate people to learn. Learning is made more permanent because these aids supply a concrete basis for learning rather than abstract thinking.

Types of Aids                         

a.  For Mass media                         

1.       Motion picture : Useful  only  to  influence  a

2. Film strips : large  number  of  people  in

3. Exhibition : order to disseminate

4. Radio : information   and also   for

5. Television : propaganda.

 Mass media

b. Other aids


            Black board


            Bulletin board


Flannel graph or Khadigraph


The cut out pictures in bright colours should be pasted on to sand paper or on to some rough material and the same are fixed on to flannel boards while teaching.


Practice before you teach for, if done well, it holds the attention of the learners. The theme of story should be selected in advance and the figures kept in order to be used without delay.


10. Flash cards:


They are pictures arranged in sequence, which illustrate a story. Support the cards on your chest wall and practice in order to make your teaching


effective. Use a pointer so that the picture is not covered by your hand.


11. Posters:


Posters should be colourful to catch the eye and convey the message clearly. Simple language and short sentences should be used. If used in the clinic, outpatients department or health centers, they should be changed frequently. When possible explain the message to the learners and use them to supplement your health teaching.


12. Suspense charts:


Each section of the chart is covered and is exposed one by one to reveal the story or ideas without exposing the whole chart at a time.

13. Puppets:


Puppets are dolls made by hand and a story can be narrated using them. It is a popular teaching aid to health teaching, both children and adults enjoy seeing puppet shows.


SELECTION AND USES OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS Uses of printed teaching material

The following criteria are guides for the selection of the books and other printed teaching materials. How each applies in a given instance depends upon the specific teaching objectives, which have been set up to meet particular needs.

Criteria for selecting audio visual aids.


            The facts should be scientifically accurate.


            Needed materials should be present


            All the information should be pertinent.


            It should cover the entire requirements.


All the ideas should be essential, significant and important to clear understanding.

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11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes : Teaching Methods and Guideline to the patient |

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