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Spread spectrum can be considered as an alternative to complex DCA algorithms. Spread spectrum avoids cochannel interference between adjacent cells, since the probability that users in nearby cells use the same spreading code is insignificant.
Thus the frequency channel allocation problem is relaxed in cellular networks based on a combination of Spread spectrum and FDMA, for example IS95 and 3G systems.
In packet based data communication services, the communication is bursty and the traffic load rapidly changing. For high system spectrum efficiency, DCA should be performed on a packet-by-packet basis.
Examples of algorithms for packet-by-packet DCA are Dynamic Packet Assignment (DPA), Dynamic Single Frequency Networks (DSFN) and Packet and resource plan scheduling (PARPS).
1. Spread spectrum Techniques:
1 In telecommunication and radio communication, spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (e.g. an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated with a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth.
2 These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference, noise and jamming, to prevent detection, and to limit power flux density (e.g. in satellite downlinks).
3 Spread-spectrum telecommunications this is a technique in which a telecommunication signal is transmitted on a bandwidth considerably larger than the frequency content of the original information.
4 Spread-spectrum telecommunications is a signal structuring technique that employs direct sequence, frequency hopping, or a hybrid of these, which can be used for multiple access and/or multiple functions.
5 Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), time-hopping spread spectrum (THSS), chirp spread spectrum (CSS).
6 Techniques known since the 1940s and used in military communication systems since the 1950s "spread" a radio signal over a wide frequency range several magnitudes higher than minimum requirement.
7 Resistance to jamming (interference). DS (direct sequence) is good at resisting continuous-time narrowband jamming, while FH (frequency hopping) is better at resisting pulse jamming.
8 Resistance to fading. The high bandwidth occupied by spread- spectrum signals offer some frequency diversity, i.e. it is unlikely that the signal will encounter severe multipath fading over its whole bandwidth, and in other cases the signal can be detected using e.g. a Rake receiver.
9 Multiple access capability, known as code-division multiple access (CDMA) or code-division multiplexing (CDM). Multiple users can transmit simultaneously in the same frequency band as long as they use different spreading codes.
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