Channel allocation schemes:
In radio resource management for wireless and cellular network, channel allocation schemes are required to allocate bandwidth and communication channels to base stations, access points and terminal equipment.
The objective is to achieve maximum system spectral efficiency in bit/s/Hz/site by means of frequency reuse, but still assure a certain grade of service by avoiding co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference among nearby cells or networks that share the bandwidth. There are two types of strategies that are followed:-
Fixed: FCA, fixed channel allocation: Manually assigned by the network operator
DCA, dynamic channel allocation,
DFS, dynamic frequency selection
In Fixed Channel Allocation or Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA) each cell is given a predetermined set of frequency channels.
FCA requires manual frequency planning, which is an arduous task in TDMA and FDMA based systems, since such systems are highly sensitive to co- channel interference from nearby cells that are reusing the same channel.
This results in traffic congestion and some calls being lost when traffic gets
heavy in some cells, and idle capacity in other cells.
2. DCA and DFS:
Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) may be applied in wireless networks with several adjacent non-centrally controlled access points.
A more efficient way of channel allocation would be Dynamic Channel Allocation or Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) in which voice channel are not allocated to cell permanently, instead for every call request base station request channel from MSC.