SOYA PRODUCTS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET AND THEIR USE
Soyabean with its high protein content is considered as a substitute for meat protein which is expensive.
Soyabean can be processed to obtain the following food products.
Soyabean is slightly roasted and ground to yield flour. Oil is sometimes removed from the bean to give defatted soya flour which has a higher keeping quality. Soya flour is used in combination with wheat flour in the preparation of chapathis. It can also be incorporated in the batter used in the preparation of bajji, vadai and pakoda.
3.SOYA MILK :
The milk is prepared by grinding soaked beans with water. It is then passed through a mill in a stream of water. The emulsion that is obtained is filtered and transferred to a boiler and mixed with vitaminised margarine to which sugar, salt, calcium and malt are added. The mixture is cooked for 20 minutes emulsified and then dried. The white emulsion thus expressed from soyabean has the appearance of milk.
3.SOYABEAN CURD :
Tofu or soyabean curd is prepared from soya milk. The curd is precipitated from milk emulsion by adding calcium sulphate. It is allowed to settle, and then it is separated washed and dried. It is a soft delicate structure which can be cut into pieces. It can be used like paneer in various preparations.
4.TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEIN (TVP) :
Textured Vegetable Protein is prepared using defatted
soya flour from which most of the oil and carbohydrates are removed. The flour contains 70 percent protein and is made into dough to which colour and flavour are added. It is at times fortified with vitamins.
The dough is extruded through equipment at high temperature and pressure and the product is expanded by sudden release of pressure.
The extruded granules are marketed as TVP. It is rehydrated with water before use in the preparation of various vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes.
5.SOYA PROTEIN ISOLATES
1. Soya protein isolates are protein granules, isolated by processing, It is fortified with vitamins and minerals and used as a complementary food.
2. Apart from these fermented soya products, soya sauce and soya paste are used in the preparation of chinese dishes.
ROLE OF PULSES IN COOKERY
1. Pulses are rich in protein and B vitamins and improve the quality of cereal protein.
2. Pulses give satiety due to high protein and fibre content.
3. Pulses improve flavour and consistency of dhal sambar and rasam.
4. They contribute to fermentation in preparation of idli and dosa.
5. They are used in snacks like sundal, bajji, panipuri and bhelpuri.
6. They are used in salads, e.g., sprouted gram.
7. They are used in desserts like paruppu payasam and sweets like mysore pak and laddu.
8. They are used as thickening agent e.g., Bengal gram flour in gravies.
9. Roasted pulses are used in making chutneys and chutney powders.
They are used as part of seasonings in curries.