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Chapter: Electrical Engineering and Instrumentation - Transformer

Single Phase Transformer Construction and Principle of Operation

It consisted of two electric circuits linked by a common magnetic circuit helped the voltage and current levels to be changed keeping the power invariant.

Single Phase Transformer Construction and Principle of Operation

Construction

 

It consisted of two electric circuits linked by a common magnetic circuit helped the voltage and current levels to be changed keeping the power invariant.

 

It has two types such as core type and shell type which is shown below.



Core type construction the windings are wound around the two legs of a rectangular magnetic core.

 

Shell type construction the windings are wound on the central leg of a three legged core.

 

There are two basic parts of a transformer i) Magnetic core ii) Winding or coils.

 

The core of the transformer is either square or rectangular in size.

 

The vertical portion on which coils are wound is called limb.

 

The top and bottom horizontal portion is called yoke of the core.

 

There are two winding in a transformer such as primary and secondary.

 

This excitation winding is called a primary and the output winding is called a secondary.

 

The primary and secondary windings are wound with copper (sometimes aluminium in small transformers) conductors.

 

As a magnetic medium forms the link between the primary and the secondary windings there is no conductive connection between the two electric circuits.

 

Principle of operation

 

It operates on the principle of mutual induction between two inductively coupled coils. It consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated but magnetically coupled to a core. If the coil is connected to a source of alternating voltage an alternating flux is produced in the laminated core. Most of the flux is linked with the coil. Thus flux is called mutual flux.

 

As per faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, an emf is induced in the secondary coil. If the secondary coil circuit is closed, a current flow in it and thus electrical energy is transferred from the first coil to the second coil.

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