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Chapter: 11th Economics : Chapter 11 : Tamil Nadu Economy

Services - Tamil Nadu Economy

Banking, insurance, energy, transport and communication fall under tertiary sector i.e., services.



Banking, insurance, energy, transport and communication fall under tertiary sector i.e., services.


1. Banking


In Tamil Nadu, Nationalised banks account for 52% with 5,337 branches, Private Commercial Banks 30% (3,060) branches, State Bank of India and its associates 13% (1,364), Regional Rural Banks 5% (537) branches and the remaining 22 foreign bank branches.


Total deposits of the banks in Tamil Nadu registered an year-on year increase of 14.32% by March 2017 and touched  Rs.6,65,068.59 crores. Total credit of the banks in Tamil Nadu registered a year-on year increase of 13.50% by March 2017 and touched  Rs.6,95,500.31 crores. The share of Priority Sector Advances stands at 45.54% as against the national average of 40%. The percentage of Agricultural advances to total advances as at the end of March 2017 works out to 19.81% as against the national average of 18%. Banks in Tamil Nadu have maintained one of the highest Credit Deposit Ratio of 119.15% in the country whereas this ratio is 77.5% at the national level.


2. Education


a. School Education


Tamil Nadu is grouped among high Gross Enrolement Ratio (GER) States. It ranks third next only to Kerala (81%) and Himachal Pradesh (74%). The all India average is 43% and the world average is 59%.



Gross Enrolment Ratio is 118.8% for primary level(class 1- 5); 112.3% for upper primary level (class 6-8), 62.7% for secondary level (class 9-10), 49.26% at Higher Secondary level (class 11-12). This has been possible mainly due to the supply of free food, cloth, foot-wear, scholarship, laptop etc.


b. Higher Education


In Gross Enrolment Ratio under higher education (Tertiary level) Tamil Nadu continues to be at the top level well ahead of other states. The GER is 46.9% in Tamil Nadu which is far higher against national average and all other States This higher GER is thanks to the distribution of free food,cloth, footwear, laptop and scholarship.



Tamil Nadu has 59 Universities, 40 Medical colleges, 517 Engineering colleges, 2,260 Arts and Science colleges, 447 Polytechnics and 20 dental colleges. Tamil Nadu produces nearly four lakh engineering and polytechnic students every year, the highest in the country.


3. Educational Loans


As far as educational loans disbursed by Public Sector Banks under priority sector are concerned, 20.8% of the total amount was disbursed in Tamil Nadu between 2013-14 and 2015-16. Andhra Pradesh was second with 11.2% of the total loan amount followed by Maharashtra (10.2%).


Of the total amount of educational loans disbursed by Private Banks during the same period, Kerala accounted for 37.8% followed by Tamil Nadu with 24.8%. Both Karnataka & Kerala together accounted for more than 60% of the total educational loan amount by Private Banks.


4. Health


Tamil Nadu has a three – tier health infrastructure comprising hospitals, primary health centres, health units, community health centres and sub-centres. As of March 2015, the State had district hospitals, 229 sub-divisional hospitals, 1,254 primary health centres, 7,555 Sub-centres and 313 community health centres.


5. Communication


Maharashtra has the highest number of internet subscribers in the country at 29.47 million, followed by States like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.


According to government data, India had a total of 342.65 million internet subscribers at the end of March, 2016. Tamil Nadu had 28.01 million subscribers, while its neighbours Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka had 24.87 million and 22.63 million, respectively.


6. Transport


Tamil Nadu has a well established transportation system that connects all parts of the State. This is partly responsible for the investment in the State. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network in terms of its spread and quality, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural habitations in the countryside. However, there is scope for improvement.


a. Road


There are 28 national highways in the State, covering a total distance of 5,036 km. The State has a total road length of 167,000 km, of which 60,628 km are maintained by Highways Department. It ranks second in India with a share of over 20% in total road projects under operation in the public-private partnership (PPP) model.


b.    Rail


Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway, Headquartered at Chennai. The present Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India’s Southern Peninsula, covering the States of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, minor portions of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 6,693 km and there are690 railway stations in the State. The systemconnects it with most major cities in India. Main rail junctions in the State include Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai, Salem, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. Chennai has a well-established Suburban Railway network, a Mass Rapid Transport System and is currently developing a Metro system, with its first underground stretch operational since May 2017.


c. Air


Tamil Nadu has four major international airports. Chennai International Airport is currently the third largest airport in India after Mumbai and Delhi. Other international airports in Tamil Nadu include Coimbatore International Airport, Madurai International Airport and Tiruchirapalli International Airport. It also has domestic airports at Tuticorin, Salem, and Madurai. which connect several parts of the country. Increased industrial activity has given rise to an increase in passenger traffic as well as freight movement which has been growing at over 18 per cent per year.


d.    Ports


Tamil Nadu has three major ports; one each at Chennai, Ennore, and Tuticorin, as well as one intermediate port in Nagapattinam, and 23 minor ports. The ports are currently capable of handling over 73 million metric tonnes of cargo annually (24 per cent share of India). All the minor portsare managed by the Tamil Nadu Maritime Board, Chennai Port. This is an artificial harbour and the second principal port in the country for handling containers. It is currently being upgraded to have a dedicated terminal for cars capable of handling 4,00,000 vehicles. Ennore Port was recently converted from an intermediate port to a major port and handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu.


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