SEQUENCING DYNAMIC CIRCUITS
Simulation-based techniques for dynamic compaction of test sequences are proposed. The first technique uses a fault simulator to remove test vectors from the partially-specified test sequence generated by a deterministic test generator if the vectors are not needed to detect the target fault, considering that the circuit state may be known.
The second technique uses genetic algorithms to fill the unspecified bits in the partially-specified test sequence in order to increase the number of faults detected by the sequence.
Significant reductions in test set sizes were observed for all benchmark circuits studied. Fault coverage’s improved for many of the circuits, and execution times often dropped as well, since fewer faults had to be targeted by the computation-intensive deterministic test generator.
Introduction Deterministic test generators for single stuck-at faults in sequential circuits
typically target individual faults, and once a test is generated, the test is fault simulated. CMOS inverters are some of the most widely used and MOSFET inverters used in chip design.
They operate with very little power loss and at relatively high speed. Furthermore, the CMOS inverter has good logic buffer characteristics, in that, its noise margins in both low and high states are large.
This short description of CMOS inverters gives a basic understanding of the how a CMOS inverter works. It will cover input/output characteristics, MOSFET states at different input voltages, and power losses due to electrical current.
A CMOS inverter contains a PMOS and a NMOS transistor connected at the drain and gate terminals, a supply voltage VDD at the PMOS source terminal, and a ground connected at the NMOS source terminal, were VIN is connected to the gate terminals and VOUT is connected to the drain terminals.(See diagram).
It is important to notice that the CMOS does not contain any resistors, which makes it more power efficient that a regular resistor-MOSFET inverter.As the voltage at the input of the CMOS device varies between 0 and 5 volts, the state of the NMOS and PMOS varies accordingly.
If we model each transistor as a simple switch activated by VIN, the inverter’s operations can be seen very easily.