Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA and Rastriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India’s flagship programme that was launched in 2000-01 to achieve Universal Elementary Education (UEE). SSA is now the primary vehicle for implementing the provisions of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009) (RTE). Right To Education (RTE) provides for free and compulsory education to all the children from the age of 6 to 14 years. The SSA initiates a variety of innovation and activities related to schools. Some important activities include providing the Mid-Day Meals and stipends for students, the setting up of School Management Committees (SMCs) and provision of teaching-learning materials for classrooms.
Rastriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is a centrally sponsored scheme for universalisation of access and improvement of quality education at the secondary stage, which was implemented during Eleventh Five-Year Plan period. The goal of RMSA is to make secondary education qualitative, available, accessible and affordable to all young students in the age group 15–16 years. Science lab, libraries, in-service training for teachers, computer-aided education, co-curricular activities and teaching- learning aids are provided by the Government of India through RMSA scheme at the school level.
The Union Budget 2018–19 proposed to give school education holistically without segmentation from Pre-School to Class XII. Samagra Siksha, and to be prepared with the broaden goal of improving school effectiveness, measured in terms of equal opportunities and equable learning outcomes. It subsumes the schemes: SSA, and RMSA. In 2017, a committee was constituted by the Ministry of Human Resources Development to draft the National Education Policy. This committee submitted its report in 2019.