Local health and safety regulations should always be followed. Treat all chemicals as potentially dangerous, and always wear appropriate protective clothing and goggles whichever of the techniques you are using. Pay par-ticular attention to the appropriate use of fume cupboards. It is most inad-visable to do practical work involving any chemicals or the use of sharp instruments on your own. The majority of the techniques given here re-quire there to be at least two persons present, and some should be carried out only by trained technicians so that should any safety issues arise, they can be dealt with immediately. The authors cannot be held responsible for harm resulting from application of any of the techniques described below. Waste disposal must be done according to local regulations. Do not pour waste liquids down the sink.