COST EFFECTIVE MATERIALS
The materials that are newly introduced are economical and have many advantages over other type of materials. These materials are called cost-effective modern construction materials. Every material has its own advantages and disadvantage. So the material with more advantages and less cost is called as a cost effective construction materials.
Man and his activities produce a lot of wastes at the same time man consumes many things. The building materials are the largest in terms of weight being above 5 tones per capita per year consumed by a man than other things. The above wastes are disposed at unwanted places, but these base materials become useful resources when they are positioned in wanted places. Today this is to be done in a technologically feasible (possible) economically viable and socially desirable manner. This becomes an existing and challenging field. Scientists, technologists, environmentalists, engineers and economists and others have to play an important role for effective waste management.
The most common chemical elements in the building materials are oxygen, silicon, calcium, iron, aluminum, carbon and hydrogen. Mostly these chemical elements are to be found in abundance in nature as well as most of the waste. To the usage of wastes by converting those into building materials become necessary today.
In India nearly 325 million tones of agricultural and over 250 million tones of industrial wastes are generated annually. Indian cement, building materials and construction industry utilize not more than 15 to 20% of it. In developed countries 40 to 45% is utilized.
The multiple use of utilizing industrial wastes is a important factor. This contains the recycling of acro industrial wastes for the manufacture of industrial waste and components. Value added products from phosphor gypsum, Fluoro gypsum, slag, carbonate and lime sludge, copper tailing, cement kiln dust, red mud, alpha naphtha, polymer composites, manufacture of boards from saw dust, jute sticks, and jute fiber boards, glass reinforced gypsum roads, fly ash polymer composite doors, shutters(or) panels, sisal fiber, cement corrugated roofing sheet etc.,
Objectives of Waste Utilisation
To create employment and income generating opportunities for the poor in rural
To improve standards of living and working conditions.
Promoting the production and use of affordable building materials, and related infrastructural facilities based on wastes.
To reduce energy energy cost
To minimize environmental pollution by recycling the wastes.
To increase the efficiency of construction by making the supply of building materials at affordable (or) reasonable prices.
The waste materials like fly ash, red mud, phospo gypsum, rice husk are mainly used for the following reasons:-
Modernization of building material and construction industry
Human resource development in the building materials industry
Strengthening industrial and external services.
Well known agencies like American Concrete Institute, CIB, CANMET (Canada), and in India (DST), NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) are carrying out the works and research on waste utilization.