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Chapter: Civil : Housing Planning and Management : Construction Types And Cost Effective Materials

Housing Planning: Construction Techniques

Guniting, Grouting, Plastering, Floor Compactor, Bar bending, Cement









Floor Compactor


Bar bending




Recently different types of cements and grades of cements are being used based on the different situations. Earlier 33 grade of cement was used for flooring, concreting and plastering works. Now 43 grade of cement is mainly used for the above works. Higher grades like 53 grade is used for heavily loaded structures, bridge, dam and concrete with heavy traffic.


Repaid hardening cement, high alumina cement, low heat cement or oil cement, Concrete


The recent construction techniques make use of a particular type of material which is more advantageous and construction equipments giving more accurate results and saving in time. In concrete the special concretes like fiber reinforced concrete, polymer concrete, light weight concrete, high density concrete, high volume fly ash concrete, high performance concrete are used to meet the special conditions and circumstances where ever required.


The fiber reinforced concrete is a concrete with addition of discontinuous, discrete and uniformly dispersed fibers to reinforce the concrete. The fibers normally used are steel, nylon, carbon, polypropylene, glass, coir, cellulose fibers etc.


Ferrocement is made by mixing cement mortar with wire mesh. This is used for water tanks and precast slabs etc.


Construction chemicals like accelerators, retarders, water proofing compound, water repellent are widely used in concrete to improve the specific quality of concrete.


Use of HPC


This is a concrete having high strength and durability. This concrete is made by adding mineral admixtures like fly ash, silica fume and chemical admixtures like super plasticizers with conventional ingredients of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. For heavily loaded structures HPC is used.




Grouting involves injecting a grout material into generally isolated pore or void space of which neither the configuration or volume are known, and is often referred to simply as grouting.


The grout may be a cementitious, resinous, or solution chemical mixture. The greatest use of pressure grouting is to improve geomaterials (soil and rock). The purpose of grouting can be either to strengthen or reduce water flow through a formation. It is also used to correct faults in concrete and masonry structures.



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