LIPID or OIL or FATS
Lipids more commonly known as fats
and oil, are integral part of our food. They are insoluble in water but soluble
in organic solvents. They occur in both plant and animals. Lipids are a
concentrated source of energy.
The ICMR recommended allowances for fat for Indians is given
in table 19A.
ICMR recommended allowances for fat.
Group Fat g/day
(1-9 yrs) 25
(10-18 yrs) 22
Effects of Deficiency:
Deficiency of fat in the diet causes the deficiency of essential
fatty acids. Deficiency of essential fatty acids leads to cessation of growth.
It also results in flaky skin,
development of itchy sores on the scalp. The common disorder in adults and
children in India is phrynoderma or toad skin.
The condition is characterized by the presence of horny
eruptions on the posterior and lateral aspects of the limbs on the back and
Phrynoderma is cured rapidly by the administration of
linseed or safflower seed oil rich in EFA.
Infants fed on a EFA deficient diet
develop irritation and changes in the skin with in a few weeks. The skin
changes appear as dryness and desquamation with oozing in the folds.
may also occur, supplementation of the diet with linoleic acid helps to restore
the skin to normal condition.