I. Choose the correct answer
1. Which system was called by different names like Jagirdari, Malguzari and Biswedari etc.?
d. None of these
[Answer: (d) None of these]
2. Under which Governor General did the permanent settlement implemented in Bengal.
a. Lord Hastings
b. Lord Cornwallis
c. Lord Wellesley
d. Lord Minto
[Answer: (b) Lord Cornwallis]
3. What was the Mahal in the Mahalwari system?
[Answer: (c) Village]
4. In which region was the Mahalwari system imposed?
[Answer: (d) Punjab]
5. Who among the following Governors introduced Mahalwari system?
a. Lord Hastings
b. Lord Cornwallis
c. Lord Wellesley
d. Lord William Bentinck
[Answer: (d) Lord William Bentinck]
6. In which region was the Ryotwari system not introduce by the British?
d. None of these
[Answer: (c) Bengal]
7. The Indigo revolt was led by whom?
a. Mahatma Gandhi
b. Keshab Chandra Roy
c. DigambarBiswas and BishnuBiswas
d. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
[Answer: (c) Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Biswas]
8. The Bardoli Satyagraha was led by whom?
a. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
b. Mahatma Gandhi
d. Keshab Chandra Roy
[Answer: (a) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel]
II Fill in the Blanks
1. Mahalwari system is the modified version of the Zamindari system.
2. The Mahalwari system was a Brain child of Holt Mackenzie.
3. Indigo Revolt took place in Bengal.
4. Moplah Rebellion was held in August 1921.
5. The Champaran Agrarian Act was passed in May 1918.
III Match the following
1. Permanent Settlement - Madras
2. Mahalwari Settlement - Misery of the Indigo cultivators
3. Ryotwari System - North west province
4. Nil Darban - Bengal
5. Santhal Rebellion - First Peasant revolt
1. Permanent Settlement - Bengal
2. Mahalwari Settlement - North west province
3. Ryotwari system - Madras
4. Nil Darpan -Misery of the Indigo cultivators
5. Santhal Rebellion -First Peasant revolt
IV State true or false
1. Warren Hastings introduced quinquennial land settlement. [Answer: True]
2. Ryotwari system was introduced by Thomas Munro. [Answer: True]
3. Pabna revolt originated in the Yusufshahi pargana in Gujarat. [Answer: True]
Correct statement: Pabna revolt originated in the Yusufshahi pargana in Bengal.
4. The Punjab land alienation Act was passed in 1918. [Answer: True]
Correct statement: The Punjab land alienation Act was passed in 1900.
V Consider the following statement and tick (✓) the appropriate answer
1. Which of the following statement is not true about Zamindari system?
a. This settlement was introduced in 1793.
b. The Zamindars became the owner of the land.
c. This system secured a fixed a stable income for the cultivators.
d. This practice was applicable to the area of 19% of India.
[Answer: (c) This system secured a fixed a stable income for the cultivators.]
2. Which of the following statement is correct about Peasants revolt in India?
a. The Santhal rebellion was held in Bengal.
b. Dinabandhu Mitra wrote a drama called Nil Darban.
c. The Deccan riots started from a village at Pune in 1873.
d. The Moplah peasants rebellion was held in Tamil Nadu.
[Answer: (b) Dinabandhu Mitra wrote a drama called Nil Darban.]
VI Answer the following in one or two sentences
1. List out any two salient features of the Permanent settlement?
Answer: Salient features of the Permanent settlement:
(i) The Zamindars were recognised as the owners of land as long as they paid the revenue to the East India Company regularly.
(ii) The Zamindars acted as the agent of the Government for the collection of revenue from the cultivators.
2. What were the salient features of the Ryotwari system?
Answer: Salient features of the Ryotwari system:
(i) Revenue settlement was done directly with the ryots.
(ii) Measurement of field and an estimate of produce was calculated.
(iii) Government fixed the demand at 45 to 55 percent of the produce.
3. Bring out the effects of the Mahalwari settlement.
Answer: Effects of the Mahalwari settlement:
(i) The Lambardar enjoyed privileges which was misused for their self-interest.
(ii) This system brought no benefit to the cultivators.
(iii) It was a modified version of the Zamindari system and benefited the upper class in villages.
4. What was the cause of Indigo Revolt in 1859 – 60?
(i) The European indigo planters compelled the tenant farmers to grow indigo at terms highly disadvantageous to the farmers.
(ii) The tenant farmer was forced to sell it cheap to the planter and accepted advances from the planter that benefitted the latter. There were also cases of kidnapping, looting, flogging and burning.
(iii) Led by Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Charan Biswas, the ryots of Nadia district gave up indigo cultivation in September 1859. Factories were burnt down and the revolt spread.
5. What was the contribution of Mahatma Gandhi on Champaran Satyagraha.
(i) The European planters of Champaran in Bihar resorted to illegal and inhuman methods of indigo cultivation at a cost which was wholly unjust.
(ii) The peasants were liable to unlawful extortion and oppression by the planters.
(iii) Mahatma Gandhi took up their cause. The Government appointed an enquiry commission of which Mahatma Gandhi was a member.
(iv) The grievances of the peasants were enquired and ultimately the Champaran Agrarian Act was passed in May 1918.
6. Mention the role of Vallabhai Patel in Bardoli Satyagraha.
(i) In 1928, the peasants of Bardoli (Gujarat) started their agitation under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, in protest against the government’s proposal to increase land revenue by 30 percent.
(ii) The peasants refused to pay tax at the enhanced rate and started no-tax campaign from 12 February 1928. Many women also participated in this campaign.
VII Answer the following in detail
1. Discuss the merits and demerits of the Permanent settlement.
(i) Under this system many of the waste lands and forests became cultivable lands.
(ii) The Zamindars became the owner of the land.
(iii) The Zamindars were made free from the responsibility of providing justice.
(iv) The Zamindars remained faithful to the British Government.
(v) This system secured a fixed and stable income for the British Government.
(i) The British Government had no direct contact with the cultivators.
(ii) The rights of the cultivators were ignored and they were left at the mercy of the Zamindars.
(iii) The peasants were almost treated as serfs.
(iv) This system was made the Zamindars lethargic and luxurious.
(v) Many conflicts between the zamindars and the peasants arose in rural Bengal.
2. What were the impacts of the British Land Revenue system on the cultivators?
Impact of the British land revenue system on the cultivators
(i) A common feature of all the settlements was the assessment and the maximize income from land. It resulted in increasing land sales and dispossession.
(ii) The peasants were overburdened with taxation. Due to the tax burden and famines, in general, the people suffered in poverty and burdened with debts. They had to seek the moneylenders who became rich and acquired lands from the peasants.
(iii) The Zamindars, money-lenders and lawyers exploited the poor peasants.
(iv) The stability and continuity of the Indian villages was shaken.
(v) Cottage industries disappeared on account of the import of British goods and the peasants had nothing to supplement their income.
(vi) The old body of custom was replaced by new apparatus of law, courts, fees, lawyers and formal procedures.
(vii) The British policy proved advantageous only to the government of a privileged section of the society at the cost of the cultivators who were the rightful owners of their lands and claimants of the larger share of the produce.
3. Write a paragraph about the Moplah Rebellion?
Moplah Rebellion (1921)
(i) The Muslim Moplah (or Moplah) peasants of Malabar (Kerala) was suppressed and exploited by the Hindu zamindars (Jenmis) and British government.
(ii) This was the main cause of this revolt.
(iii) The Moplah peasants got momentum from the Malabar District Conference, held in April 1920.
(iv) This conference supported the tenants’ cause, and demanded legislations for regulating landlord-tenant relations.
(v) In August 1921, the Moplah tenants rebelled against the oppressive zamindars. In tbe initial phase of the rebellion, the Moplah peasants attacked the police stations, public offices, communications and houses of oppressive landlords and moneylenders.
(vi) By December 1921, the government ruthlessly suppressed the Moplah rebellion.
(vii) According to an official estimate, as a result of government intervention, 2337 Moplah rebels were killed, 1650 wounded and more than 45,000 captured as prisoners.
1. Apart from the exploiting through taxes, how did the British further exploit the land?
Answer: Apart from the taxes, the British followed the policy of commercialization of Agriculture which was a major set back for Indian farmers. They were forced to grow the soil fertility deteriorating cash crops such as opium. Jute, Indigo etc., Agricultural prices shot up by 31%. They were threatened if they failed to grow these crops.
IX Project and Activity
1. Point out the influence which shaped Gandhiji’s ideas on Ahimsa and Satyagraha.
Answer: The 21 years Gandhiji spent in South Africa offered him valuable insights in familiarizing himself with the inhuman situations that existed outside as well as helping him develop appropriate concepts and techniques of nonviolent defence. He resisted non-violently any oppression and exhorted the Indians to take part in public activities. For him, South Africa was the place where he first tried methods of non violence and after 20 years of relentless struggle he won finally against the whites.
2. Organize exhibition in your school on the peasants conditions highlight the similarities between past and present.