Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculae.
1. Droplet infection.( coughing, talking, sneezing or singing.)
2. When an uninfected susceptible person inhales the droplet, containing air, the organism is carried into the lung to the pulmonary alveoli.
Signs and symptoms:
1. Patient may be asymptomatic. Later it can show symptoms as follows:
2. Fatigue, Anorexia, weight loss, low-grade fever, night sweats indigestion.
3. Some patients have acute febrile illness, chill, generalized influnzalite symptoms.
4. Cough (insidious onset) progressing in frequency and
5. producing mucous or mucopurulent sputum. iv. Hemoptysis, chest pain, dyspnoea.
1. Sputum smear and culture
2. Chest x-ray
Anti tuberculosis therapy
i. Obtain history of exposure to tuberculosis.
ii. Administer and teach self-administration of medication as ordered
Encourage rest and avoidance of exertion.
i. Monitor breath sounds, respiratory rate, sputum production and dyspnoea.
ii. Provide supplementary oxygen as ordered.
iii. Encourage and explain the importance of eating a nutritious.
iv. Monitor weight.
Administer vitamin supplements as ordered, particularly
pyridoxine (Vitamin B12) to prevent peripheral neuropathy in-patient taking isonized.
Prevention of transmission
1. Be aware that, respiratory droplet or secretions transmit tuberculosis.
2. Provide care for hospitalized patient in a negative pressure room to prevent respiratory droplets from leaving room when door is opened.
3. Enforce that all staffs and visitors use standard face mask for contact with patient.
4. Use high-efficiency particulate mask for high-risk procedures
5. Educate the patient about the etiology transmission of effects of tuberculosis.
6. Stress the importance of continuing to take medication for prescribed time.
7. Follow up care
1. Pleural effusion
2. Tuberculosis pneumonia.
3. Other organ involvement with tuberculosis.