PROCESSED CEREAL PRODUCTS
Products of wheat Whole wheat flour:
It is obtained by grinding whole wheat. It contains the finely ground bran, germ and endosperm of the whole kernel.
It is refined wheat flour. The bran and germ are separated in making white flour or maida. Maida bakes more uniformly into a loaf of a greater volume and it is more bland in taste and more easily digested. It is used in the manufacture of macaroni products.
It is coarsely ground endosperm and its chemical composition is similar to that of white flour.
These products include macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and noodles.
The starchy endosperm of wheat is coarsely ground into semolina which is made with water into a thick dough. The dough is placed in a cylinder, the lower end of which is fitted with a disc perforated with openings. As the dough is forced through the openings various shapes are formed. Macaroni is a tube form, spaghetti may be either tube or rod, vermicelli is a tiny rod and noodles are flat strips.
The process of malting helps in the production of malted cereal flour Malted cereal flour is inexpensive and can be made at home as well as commercially.
Malt is used in brewing and in the preparation of malt extract for pharmaceutical purposes and in the preparation of malted milk powder.
Broken Wheat is whole wheat coarsely ground into large particles. As the losses during milling is little, it is a very nutritious food.
Rice products: Rice bran:
Breakage of the white rice kernel during milling results in small fragments of the endosperm becoming part of the bran fraction. Parboiled rice bran is normally finely granulated and light tan in colour. It has a bland flavour and can be used in the preparation of bread, snacks, cookies and biscuits. In addition, rice bran is a very rich source of dietary fibre. It is therefore an effective stool bulking agent.
Rice bran oil :
Rice bran oil is obtained by extracting edible grade oil from rice bran. The National Institute of Nutrition, (NIN) Hyderabad has certified that this oil is toxicologically safe for human consumption. This oil is rich in Vitamin E. In addition, it has cholesterol lowering effect than other oils.
Puffed rice is obtained when sun ripe paddy is filled in earthen jars and is moistened with hot water. After 2-3 minutes the water is decanted and the jars are then kept in an inverted position for 8-10 hours.
The paddy is exposed to sun for a short time and then parched in hot sand at 190 -210º C for 40-45 seconds. During parching, the grains swell and burst into soft white products. The parched grains are sieved to remove sand and winnowed to separate the husk.
Rice flakes are made after soaking the paddy in hot water, parching it by roasting and then flattening it by force while it is hot to form flakes. It retains a large part of iron and B-vitamin of the aleurone layer. The roasting helps to toast the grain, resulting in partial cooking of the grain. It needs very little time to prepare and is used as a snack. It should be free from bran, broken particles, fragments of the seed coat, insects, stones, trash and bad odour.
Products of Maize Corn oil:
Corn oil is extracted from corn germ. Corn or maize oil is a highly desired vegetable oil owing to its relatively high level of linolenic fatty acid and its excellent flavour.
Popcorn is prepared by heating the kernels of corn. During heating, the water vapour within them expands, increasing the pressure until it is sufficient to make the kernels explode or 'pop'. It is used as a snack for children. Popping can be done with or without fat.
It is made by a process of wet milling in which the hull and germ are removed. The corn is then ground and mixed with water. The semi liquid material is separated by passing it over sieves or centrifuging it. The starch settles out while most of the protein remains suspended.
The starch is then washed, dried and powdered. Corn starch is widely used because it is inexpensive, lacks characteristic flavour and cooks to a smooth and almost clear paste in water or other clear liquid and superior to wheat flour or potato starch.