Products of wheat Whole wheat flour:
It is obtained by grinding whole
wheat. It contains the finely ground bran, germ and endosperm of the whole
It is refined wheat flour. The bran
and germ are separated in making white flour or maida. Maida bakes more
uniformly into a loaf of a greater volume and it is more bland in taste and
more easily digested. It is used in the manufacture of macaroni products.
It is coarsely ground endosperm and
its chemical composition is similar to that of white flour.
products include macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and noodles.
The starchy endosperm of wheat is
coarsely ground into semolina which is made with water into a thick dough. The
dough is placed in a cylinder, the lower end of which is fitted with a disc
perforated with openings. As the dough is forced through the openings various
shapes are formed. Macaroni is a tube form, spaghetti may be either tube or
rod, vermicelli is a tiny rod and noodles are flat strips.
The process of malting helps in the
production of malted cereal flour Malted cereal flour is inexpensive and can be
made at home as well as commercially.
Malt is used in brewing and in the preparation of malt
extract for pharmaceutical purposes and in the preparation of malted milk
Broken Wheat is whole wheat coarsely ground into large
particles. As the losses during milling is little, it is a very nutritious
products: Rice bran:
Breakage of the white rice kernel during milling results in
small fragments of the endosperm becoming part of the bran fraction. Parboiled
rice bran is normally finely granulated and light tan in colour. It has a bland
flavour and can be used in the preparation of bread, snacks, cookies and
biscuits. In addition, rice bran is a very rich source of dietary fibre. It is
therefore an effective stool bulking agent.
Rice bran oil :
Rice bran oil is obtained by extracting edible grade oil
from rice bran. The National Institute of Nutrition, (NIN) Hyderabad has
certified that this oil is toxicologically safe for human consumption. This oil
is rich in Vitamin E. In addition, it has cholesterol lowering effect than
Puffed rice is obtained when sun
ripe paddy is filled in earthen jars and is moistened with hot water. After 2-3
minutes the water is decanted and the jars are then kept in an inverted
position for 8-10 hours.
The paddy is exposed to sun for a
short time and then parched in hot sand at 190 -210º C for 40-45 seconds.
During parching, the grains swell and burst into soft white products. The
parched grains are sieved to remove sand and winnowed to separate the husk.
Rice flakes are made after soaking the paddy in hot water,
parching it by roasting and then flattening it by force while it is hot to form
flakes. It retains a large part of iron and B-vitamin of the aleurone layer.
The roasting helps to toast the grain, resulting in partial cooking of the
grain. It needs very little time to prepare and is used as a snack. It should
be free from bran, broken particles, fragments of the seed coat, insects,
stones, trash and bad odour.
of Maize Corn oil:
Corn oil is extracted from corn germ.
Corn or maize oil is a highly desired vegetable oil owing to its relatively
high level of linolenic fatty acid and its excellent flavour.
Popcorn is prepared by heating the
kernels of corn. During heating, the water vapour within them expands,
increasing the pressure until it is sufficient to make the kernels explode or
'pop'. It is used as a snack for children. Popping can be done with or without
It is made by a process of wet milling in which the hull and
germ are removed. The corn is then ground and mixed with water. The semi liquid
material is separated by passing it over sieves or centrifuging it. The starch
settles out while most of the protein remains suspended.
The starch is then washed, dried and
powdered. Corn starch is widely used because it is inexpensive, lacks
characteristic flavour and cooks to a smooth and almost clear paste in water or
other clear liquid and superior to wheat flour or potato starch.