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Points to Remember
· All the organ systems work together in coordination to maintain the body in a homeostatic condition of an organism. Division of labour is found among the various organ systems.
· Parts of the body concerned with the digestion of food form the digestive system.
· Alimentary canal is a muscular coiled, tubular structure. It consists of mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine (consisting of duodenum, jejunum and ileum), large intestine (consisting of caecum, colon and rectum) and anus.
· The five stages of nutrition process include ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion
· The small intestine serves both for digestion and absorption
· Absorption is the process by which nutrients obtained a er digestion are absorbed by villi and circulated throughout the body by blood and lymph
· The tissues and the organs associated with the removal of the waste products constitute the excretory system.
· The human excretory system consists of a pair of kidney, which produce the urine, a pair of ureters which conduct the urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder, where urine is stored temporarily and urethra through which the urine is voided by bladder contractions
· The process of urine formation includes the following three stages. Glomerular ltration. tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
· In condition of kidney (renal) failure, an arti cial kidney is used to lter the blood of the patient. e patient is said to be put on dialysis and the process of purifying blood by an arti cial kidney is called haemodialysis
· The reproductive systems of male and female consist of many organs which are distinguished as primary and secondary sex organs.
· The primary sex organs are gonads, which produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete sex hormones. The secondary sex organs include the genital ducts and glands which help in the transportation of gametes and enable the reproductive process.
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