All the organ systems work together in coordination to maintain
the body in a homeostatic condition of an organism. Division of labour is found
among the various organ systems.
Parts of the body concerned with the digestion of food form the
Alimentary canal is a muscular coiled, tubular structure. It
consists of mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine
(consisting of duodenum, jejunum and ileum), large intestine (consisting of
caecum, colon and rectum) and anus.
The five stages of nutrition process include ingestion, digestion,
absorption, assimilation and egestion
The small intestine serves both for digestion and absorption
Absorption is the process by which nutrients obtained a er
digestion are absorbed by villi and circulated throughout the body by blood and
The tissues and the organs associated with the removal of the
waste products constitute the excretory system.
The human excretory system consists of a pair of kidney, which
produce the urine, a pair of ureters which conduct the urine from kidneys to
the urinary bladder, where urine is stored temporarily and urethra through
which the urine is voided by bladder contractions
The process of urine formation includes the following three
stages. Glomerular ltration. tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
In condition of kidney (renal) failure, an arti cial kidney is
used to lter the blood of the patient. e
patient is said to be put on dialysis and the process of purifying blood by an
arti cial kidney is called haemodialysis
The reproductive systems of male and female consist of many organs
which are distinguished as primary and secondary sex organs.
The primary sex organs are gonads, which produce gametes (sex
cells) and secrete sex hormones. The secondary sex organs include the genital
ducts and glands which help in the transportation of gametes and enable the