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Chapter: 9th Science : Parts of a Computer

Parts of a Computer

Three parts of the computer are : · Input Unit · Central Processing Unit (CPU) · Output Unit

Parts of Computer


Is it easy to connect our sprawling planet to a point? If it is easy, then how would it be possible? e answer to these questions in today's world is the Computer. In this Modern World computer eases the e ort and speeds up the processes to a great extent. Now-a-days the usage of computer plays an important role in every walk of life. So, it is apt time to learn about computers. To start, it is necessary to note that there are three key units in the computer. Understanding of this three units will make us to operate a computer in ease. In this section, let us learn what are the three units? and what are the functions of each of these units?

Parts of a Computer

Three parts of the computer are :

·           Input Unit

·           Central Processing Unit (CPU)

·           Output Unit


Input Unit

The input unit helps to send the data and commands for the processing. The devices that are used to enter data are called input devices.

Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Barcode reader, Microphone-Mic., Web camera, Light Pen are some of the input devices.


Keyboard and mouse are the important input units. Keyboard plays an important role in a computer as an input device. Numbers and alphabet plays a role of Data in computer. Keyboard helps to enter data. Keyboard has two types of keys, namely number keys and alphabet keys. The keys with numbers are called number keys and the keys with letters are called alphabet keys.


Mouse is an essential part of the computer. Mouse has two buttons and a scroll ball in the middle. The mouse is used to move the pointer on a computer screen. Right button is used to select les and to open the folder. Le button is used to carryout corrections in the le. The page on the monitor can be moved up and down using the scroll ball.


CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is the brain of the Computer. The data is processed in the CPU. The CPU has namely three parts.

1. Memory Unit

2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

3. Control Unit

Memory Unit

The memory unit in the computer saves all data and information temporarily. The data is measured in units which is called as Bit. A Bit has a single binary value either 0 or 1. We can classify memory unit into two types namely primary and secondary memory. Memory can be expanded externally with the help of Compact Disk (CD), Pendrive, etc.

Arithmetic Logic Unit

Arithmetic and Logic unit performs all arithmetic computations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Control Unit

The control unit controls the functions of all parts of the computer.


Output Unit

The Output unit converts the command received by the computer in the form of binary signals into easily understandable characters.

Monitor, Printer, Speaker, scanner are some of the Output devices.

Of the various output devices, monitor is the important output device because it is the link to the computer. Monitor screen looks like TV screen. The input data in the form of Alphabets, Numbers, Pictures or Cartoons and Videos will be displayed on a monitor. ere are two types of monitor namely,

1. Cathode Ray Tube monitors (CRT)

2. Thin Film Transistor Monitors (TFT)

Now a days computer system has TFT monitor as they occupy less space and emit less heat than CRT monitors.


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