PLANNING FOR BUILDING
All buildings should be properly planned, keeping in view the various requirements of a good building. Except strength requirement, all other requirements of a good buildings are taken care at the stage of planning. Strength requirement is taken care during structural design of building components. However in planning the building by-laws of the statutory authorities should not be violated. Planning of the building is an art combined with science.
Principles of planning of buildings may be grouped into:
2. Energy efficiency
4. Other requirements of the building.
1 Planning suitable orientation
Orientation means setting out the plan of the building with respect to north-south and east-west directions to provide an opportunity to user to enjoy sun-shine and breeze when required and to avoid the same whenever not required. This is also known as planning the aspect of a building. Aspect means arrangement of doors, windows in the external wall to make good use of nature. This term has nothing to do with the architectural aspect of outlook of building. Kitchen should have eastern aspect to enjoy morning sunshine, means, kitchen should be located on the eastern side of the building to make use of morning sun rays. The following are the required aspects for various parts of the building in the northern hemisphere of earth:
(a) Kitchen–eastern aspect.
(b) Dining room–southern aspect to enjoy winter sun.
(c) Drawing and living room–southern or south-eastern aspect to enjoy winter sun.
(d) Bed rooms–western or south-western aspect to enjoy breez in summer
(e) Reading room, class room, stairs, northern aspect to enjoy diffused light.
2 Planning for energy efficiency
A building should be planned in such a manner that it gives maximum day lighting, ventilation and heat insulation. If these requirements are fulfilled, requirement of electric energy comes down.
(a) Light: Natural light provides hygenic atmosphere. Light should not be glaring but it should be uniformly distributed. Providing windows and ventilators of appropriate size at suitable positions contributes a lot for natural lighting. For residential buildings window area to floor area should not be less than 1/10th while for school buildings it should not be less than 1/5th of floor area. For factory buildings north light trusses should be provided to get maximum diffused light.
(b) Ventilation: Ventilation is the circulation of the air in the building. Natural ventilation can be achieved by selecting and positioning of doors, windows and ventilators at suitable places. Always cross ventilations should be planned suitably. Provision of ventilators at roof level helps in driving out hot airs. In case it is not possible to achieve natural ventilation for any part of the building provide ordinary or exhaust fans.
(c) Heat Insulation: Thicker exterior walls provide insulation against heat. Proper ventilation also helps in achieving heat insulation. Sun shades provided to doors, windows and ventilators help in achieving heat insulation. In factories and assembly halls height should be more to reduce temperature inside the building. The position of furnaces in the factories should be located away from the other parts
of the factory. The openings should be provided at higher level in the wall to remove hot air.
3 Planning for suitable utility
Principles of planning for suitable utility are:
2. Furniture Requirements
3. Groupings 4.Circulation
4 Planning for meeting other requirements
Principle of planning involves planning for meeting the following requirements also:
1. Sanitary convenience
6. Resistance to fire
7. Sound insulation
8. Protection from termite
9. Security against burglary 10.Econoy
11.Provisions for future alterations.