In addition to the cardiopulmonary examination, we carefully evaluate the patient’s airway to predict whether it will be easily intubated (see Airway manage-ment). The physical examination should also seek pre-existing neurologic deficits, particularly if regional anesthesia, e.g., spinal, epidural or nerve plexus block, is considered, and any limitations to flexibility that may present difficulties with positioning the patient. If we plan on regional anesthesia, we need to inspect the anatomy, for example, does the patient have a scoliosis that would make a lumbar puncture difficult, or is his skin infected over the site where we would place the needle?
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